Is Transcranial Doppler for the Detection of Venous-to-Arterial Circulation Shunts Reproducible?Sastry S. · Daly K. · Chengodu T. · McCollum C.
Department of Academic Surgery, South Manchester University Hospital, Manchester, UK
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
Article / Publication Details
Background: We investigated the reproducibility of contrast transcranial Doppler (TCD), a safe non-invasive test for investigation of venous-to-arterial circulation shunts (v-aCS), usually patent foramen ovale, in young stroke patients. We also investigated whether microbubble contrast was reproducible and whether the addition of blood to agitated saline contrast affected the number of microbubbles produced. Methods: TCD investigation for v-aCS was repeated in 42 patients using a standardised protocol (i) by the same investigator and (ii) by a different investigator. Agitated saline was produced by mixing saline and 1 ml of air between two 10-ml syringes. The effect of adding blood and increasing the number of agitations was evaluated by microscopy examination using a haemocytometer to assess bubble numbers and sizes. Results: TCD: no difference was found in the highest microbubble count for the same investigator and between different investigators (p > 0.05). Reproducibility for the detection of v-aCS consistent with a patent foramen ovale was also good (ĸ values >0.8). Contrast: both the number of contrast mixes before injection and the presence of blood significantly increased the number of bubbles counted. On average, 18 agitations produced 1.86 (95% CI 1.62–2.13) times more bubbles than 6 agitations. Mixtures with blood produced on average 3.8 times more bubbles (3.08–4.69). The size of the bubbles was similar for all mixtures. Conclusions: Contrast TCD is reproducible and reliable for the detection of v-aCS. The addition of blood and 18 mixes rather than 6 significantly increased the number of microbubbles produced and may increase the effectiveness of microbubble contrast.
© 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.