Changes in the Immune System after Moderate Beer ConsumptionRomeo J. · Wärnberg J. · Nova E. · Díaz L.E. · González-Gross M. · Marcos A.
Grupo Inmunonutrición, Departamento de Metabolismo y Nutrición, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
Article / Publication Details
Background/Aim: Epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower morbidity. However, intervention studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms involved. This study was aimed to determine the effects of moderate beer consumption on the immune function of healthy adults, taking into account gender differences. Methods: After a 30-day alcohol abstinence period, 57 healthy volunteers consumed a moderate intake of beer (330 ml for women and 660 ml for men) for 30 days. Total leukocyte and lymphocyte counts; absolute values of T-lymphocyte CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ subsets; delayed-hypersensitivity skin response (DHSR); absolute values of B lymphocytes (CD19+) and serum immunoglobulin concentrations (IgG, IgA, and IgM); and cytokine production (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) were evaluated following the abstinence and alcohol consumption periods. Results: After moderate beer consumption CD3+ cells increased only in women (p < 0.05). IgG, IgM, and IgA concentrations, as well as IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ cytokine production increased while IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio decreased in both men and women (p < 0.05). The rest of the immunological parameters analyzed remained unchanged. Conclusion: Moderate beer consumption produced an immunomodulatory effect in a healthy adult Spanish population; this effect appears to be more relevant in women than in men.
© 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel
- Diaz LE, Montero A, González-Gross M, Vallejo AI, Romeo J, Marcos A: Influence of alcohol consumption on immunological status: a review. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002;56:50–53.
- Sibley DA, Osna N, Kusynski C, Wilkie L, Jerrells TR: Alcohol consumption is associated with alterations in macrophage responses to interferon-gamma and infection by Salmonella typhimurium. Immunol Med Microbiol 2001;32:73–83.
Jacobson J: Alcoholism and tuberculosis. Alcohol World Health Res 1992;16:39–45.
- Mendenhall CL, Theus SA, Roselle GA, Grossman CJ, Rouster SD: Biphasic in vivo immune function after low- versus high-dose alcohol consumption. Alcohol 1997;14:255–260.
- Cohen S, Tyrrell DA, Russell MA, Jarvis MJ, Smith AP: Smoking, alcohol consumption, and susceptibility to the common cold. Am J Public Health 1993;83:1277–1283.
González-Gross M, Lebrón M, Marcos A: Literature Review about the Effects of Moderate Beer Consumption on Health Persons. Madrid, Centro de Información Cerveza y Salud, 2000.
- Grossman CJ, Nienaber M, Mendenhall CL, Hurtubise P, Roselle GA, Rouster S, Weber N, Schmitt G, Gartside PS: Sex differences and the effects of alcohol on immune response in male and female rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1993;17:832–840.
- Spitzer JA, Zhang P: Gender differences in phagocytic responses in the blood and liver, and the generation of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant in the liver of acutely ethanol-intoxicated rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1996;20:914–920.
- Lee S, Rivier C: Gender differences in the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to immune signals. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1996;21:145–155.
- Spitzer JA, Spitzer JJ: Lipopolysaccharide tolerance and ethanol modulate hepatic nitric oxide production in a gender-dependent manner. Alcohol 2000;21:27–35.
- Riemens SC, van Tol A, Hoogenberg K, van Gent T, Scheek LM, Sluiter WJ, Dullaart RP: Higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol associated with moderate alcohol consumption is not related to altered plasma lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase and lipid transfer protein activity levels. Clin Chim Acta 1997;258:105–115.
- Sierksma A, Van Der Gaag MS, Kluft C, Hendriks HF: Moderate alcohol consumption reduces plasma C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels; a randomized, diet-controlled intervention study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002;56:1130–1136.
- Boffetta P, Garfinkel L: Alcohol drinking and mortality among men enrolled in an American Cancer Society prospective study. Epidemiology 1990;1:342–348.
- Renaud SC, Guéguen R, Schenker J, d’Houtaud A: Alcohol and mortality in middle-aged men from eastern France. Epidemiology 1998;9:184–188.
- Rimm EB, Williams P, Fosher K, Criqui M, Stampfer MJ: Moderate alcohol intake and lower risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of effects on lipids and haemostatic factors. BMJ 1999;319:1523–1528.
- Rimm E: Alcohol and cardiovascular disease. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2000;2:529–535.
Jaminiski MV, Pinchcofsky-Devin GD, McCormick DC: DCH testing as a nutritional assessment tool. Nutr Support Services 1985;5:21–23.
Jaurrieta E, Sitges-Serra A, Sánchez JM, Sitges-Creus A: Desnutrición e inmunodepresión preoperatorias: factores de riesgo en cirugía mayor. Estudio preliminar (Preoperative malnutrition and immunosuppression: risk factors in major surgery). Cir Esp 1981;35:81–87.
- Budec M, Ciric O, Koko V, Asanin R: The possible mechanism of action of ethanol on rat thymus. Drug Alcohol Depend 1992;30:181–185.
- Cook RT: Alcohol abuse, alcoholism, and damage to the immune system: a review. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1998;22:1927–1942.
- Mukamal KJ, Cushman M, Mittleman MA, Tracy RP, Siscovick DS: Alcohol consumption and inflammatory markers in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Atherosclerosis 2004;173:79–87.
- Boyadjieva NI, Dokur M, Advis JP, Meadows GG, Sarkar DK: Beta-endorphin modulation of lymphocyte proliferation: effects of ethanol. Alcohol Clin Exp 2002;26:1719–1727.
- Straus B, Berenyi MR, Huang JM, Straus E: Delayed hypersensitivity in alcoholic cirrhosis. Am J Dig Dis 1971;16:509–516.
- Jayasinghe R, Gianutsos G, Hubbard AK: Ethanol-induced suppression of cell-mediated immunity in the mouse. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1992;16:331–335.
- Kim DJ, Kim W, Yoon SJ, Choi BM, Kim JS, Go HJ, Kim YK, Jeong J: Effects of alcohol hangover on cytokine production in healthy subjects. Alcohol 2003;31:167–170.
- Mandrekar P, Catalano D, Girouard L, Szabo G: Human monocyte IL-10 production is increased by acute ethanol treatment. Cytokine 1996;8:567–577.
- Dominguez-Santalla MJ, Vidal C, Vinuela J, Perez LF, Gonzalez-Quintela A: Increased serum IgE in alcoholics: relationship with Th1/Th2 cytokine production by stimulated blood mononuclear cells. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2001;25:1198–1205.
- Bermudez LE, Young LS: Ethanol augments intracellular survival of Mycobacterium avium complex and impairs macrophage responses to cytokines. J Infect Dis 1991;163:1286–1292.
- Deaciuc IV: Alcohol and cytokine networks. Alcohol 1997;14:421–430.
- Gonzalez-Quintela A, Dominguez-Santalla MJ, Perez LF, Vidal C, Lojo S, Barrio E: Influence of acute alcohol intake and alcohol withdrawal on circulating levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12. Cytokine 2000;12:1437–1440.
- Daniluk J, Szuster-Ciesielska A, Drabko J, Kandefer-Szerszen M: Serum cytokine levels in alcohol-related liver cirrhosis. Alcohol 2001;23:29–34.
- Vicente-Gutierrez MM, Diez Ruiz A, Gil Extremera B, Bermudez Garcia JM, Gutierrez Gea F: Low serum levels of alpha-interferon, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-2 in alcoholic cirrhosis. Dig Dis Sci 1991;36:1209–1212.
- Ito T, Ikeda U: Inflammatory cytokines and cardiovascular disease. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy 2003;2:257–265.
- Albert MA, Glynn RJ, Ridker PM: Alcohol consumption and plasma concentration of C-reactive protein. Circulation 2003;107:443–447.
- Sierksma A, van der Gaag MS, Kluft C, Hendriks HF: Moderate alcohol consumption reduces plasma C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels; a randomized, diet-controlled intervention study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002;56:1130–1136.
- Hoffmeister A, Imhof A, Rothenbacher D, Khuseyinova N, Brenner H, Koenig W: Moderate alcohol consumption and plasma concentration of sensitive markers of inflammation: comment on an atheroprotective relationship. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2003;128:2237–2241.
- Szabo G, Mandrekar P, Dolganiuc A, Catalano D, Kodys K: Reduced alloreactive T-cell activation after alcohol intake is due to impaired monocyte accessory cell function and correlates with elevated IL-10, IL-13, and decreased IFN-gamma levels. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2001;25:1766–1772.
- Heeschen C, Dimmeler S, Hamm CW, Fichtlscherer S, Boersma E, Simoons ML, Zeiher AM; CAPTURE Study Investigators: serum level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 is an important prognostic determinant in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Circulation 2003;107:2109–2114.
- Mandrekar P, Catalano D, White B, Szabo G: Moderate alcohol intake in humans attenuates monocyte inflammatory responses: inhibition of nuclear regulatory factor kappa B and induction of interleukin 10. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2006;30:135–139.
- Waltenbaugh C, Vasquez K, Peterson JD: Alcohol consumption alters antigen-specific Th1 responses: mechanisms of deficit and repair. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1998;22:220–223.
- Maes M: Major depression and activation of the inflammatory response system. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;461:25–46.
- Van Den Biggelaar AH, De Craen AJ, Gussekloo J, Huizinga TW, Heijmans BT, Frolich M, Kirkwood TB, Westendorp RG: Inflammation underlying cardiovascular mortality is a late consequence of evolutionary programming. FASEB J 2004;18:1022–1024.
- Street NE, Mosmann TR: Functional diversity of T lymphocytes due to secretion of different cytokine patterns. FASEB J 1991;5:171–177.
Ciesielska A: Immunosuppressive aspects of estrogen. Neurol Neurochir Pol 2003;37:79–92.
- Liu HB, Loo KK, Palaszynski K, Ashouri J, Lubahn DB, Voskuhl RR: Estrogen receptor alpha mediates estrogen’s immune protection in autoimmune disease. J Immunol 2003;171:6936–6940.
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.