Meditation-Induced PsychosisKuijpers H.J.H.a · van der Heijden F.M.M.A.a · Tuinier S.a · Verhoeven W.M.A.a, b
aVincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, and bErasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
Background:Meditation is a self-regulatory psychological strategy that is frequently applied in Western as well as non-Western countries for different purposes; little is known about adverse events. Sampling and Methods: A male patient is described who developed an acute and transient psychosis with polymorphic symptomatology after meditating. A literature search for psychotic states related to meditation was carried out on PubMed, Embase and PsycInfo. Results: In the case presented a diagnosis of acute polymorphic psychotic disorder was made. Other case reports dealt with either a relapse of a pre-existent psychotic disorder or with a brief psychotic reaction in patients without a psychiatric history. Conclusion:Meditation can act as a stressor in vulnerable patients who may develop a transient psychosis with polymorphic symptomatology. The syndrome is not culture bound but sometimes classified in culture-bound taxonomies like Qi-gong Psychotic Reaction.
© 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel
- Snaith P: Meditation and psychotherapy. Br J Psychiatry 1998;173:193–195.
- Shapiro D, Giber D: Meditation and psychotherapeutic effects. Self-regulation strategy and altered states of consciousness. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1978;35:294–302.
- Bishop SR: What do we really know about mindfulness-based stress reduction? Psychosoma Med 2002;64:71–84.
- West MA: Meditation: a review. Br J Psychiatry 1979;135:457–467.
Epstein MD, Lieff JD: Psychiatric complications of meditation practice. J Transpers Psychol 1981;13:137–147.
- Ng B-Y: Qigong-induced mental disorders: a review. Aust NZ J Psychiatry 1999;33:197–206.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed 4. Washington, American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
- Chan-Ob T, Boonyanaruthee V: Meditation in association with psychosis. J Med Assoc Thai 1999;82:925–930.
The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. Geneva, WHO, 1992.
- Susser E, Wanderling J: Epidemiology of nonaffective acute remitting psychosis vs. schizophrenia. Sex and sociocultural setting. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994:51;294–301.
- Castillo RJ: Trance, functional psychosis, and culture. Psychiatry 2003;66:9–21.
- French AP, Schmid AC, Ingalls E: Transcendental meditation, altered reality testing, and behavioral change: a case report. J Nerv Ment Dis 1975;161:55–58.
- Walsh R, Roche L: Precipitation of acute psychotic episodes by intensive meditation in individuals with a history of schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1979;136:1085–1086.
Hanssen W: Psykoser og meditation. Ugeskr Laeger 1981;14:20–22.
Trujillo RG, Monterrey AL, González de Rivera JL: Meditación y psicosis. Psiquis 1992;13:75–79.
- Xu S: Psychophysiological reactions associated with Qigong therapy. Chin Med J 1994;107:230–233.
- Lim RF, Lin K-M: Cultural formulation of psychiatric diagnosis. Case no. 03. Psychosis following qi-gong in a Chinese immigrant. Cult Med Psychiatry 1996;20:369–378.
Shan HH: Culture-bound psychiatric disorders associated with Qigong practice in China. Hong Kong J Psychiatry 2000;10:12–14.
Yorston GA: Mania precipitated by meditation: a case report and literature review. Ment Health Relig Cult 2001;4:209–213.
- Sethi S, Bhargava SC: Relationship of meditation and psychosis: case studies. Aust NZ J Psychiatry 2003;37:382.
Disayavanish C, Disayavanish P: Meditation-induced psychosis (in Thai). J Psychiatr Assoc Thai 1984;29:1–12.
Wang P: Qigong-induced manic state (in Chinese). J Clin Psychol Med 1994;4:239.
Wu CY: A clinical analysis of seventy-six cases of Qigong-induced psychotic disorders (in Chinese). J Clin Psychol Med 1992;2:7–9.
van der Heijden FM, Tuinier S, Pepplinkhuizen L, Van Praag HM, Verhoeven WM: Beyond the mainstream: the heuristic value of the cycloid psychosis. Eur J Psychiatry 2002;16:15–26.
- Lee S: Cultures in psychiatric nosology: the CCMD-2-R and international classification of mental disorders. Cult Med Psychiatry 1996;20:421–472.
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.