Metabolic Trafficking in Energy Metabolism
NMR Spectroscopic Studies of 13C Acetate and 13C Glucose Metabolism in Neocortical Astrocytes: Evidence for Mitochondrial HeterogeneitySonnewald U.a · Westergaard N.b · Hassel B.d · Müller T.B.a,c · Unsgård G.c · Fonnum F.d · Hertz L.e · Schousboe A.b · Petersen S.B.a,f
a MR-Center, SINTEF UNIMED, Trondheim, Norway; b Pharma Biotec Research Center, Department of Biological Sciences, Royal Danish School of Pharmacy, Copenhagen, Denmark; c University of Trondheim, Department of Neurosurgery Trondheim, Norway; d Defence Research Institute, Division for Environmental Toxicology, Kjeller, Norway; e University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada f Department of Biotechnology, NTH, Trondheim, Norway
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Neocortical astrocytes were incubated with 13C-labeled substrates to determine metabolic pathways. 13C NMR spectroscopy was used to analyze 13C incorporation into glutamine and citrate from the different precursors – [1-13C]glucose or [2-13C]acetate. When glucose was the labeling substrate, incorporation due to pyruvate carboxylation should be observed in the C-2 position in glutamine and the C-4 position in citrate. A large incorporation due to pyruvate carboxylation was observed in glutamine in the C-2 and C-3 positions, but not in citrate. When acetate was the precursor, the labeling ratios in the C-2/C-4 positions in glutamine and in the equivalent positions in citrate were 0.27 and 0.11, respectively. Moreover, acetate labeled lactate in the C-2 position much less than did glucose. Altogether, these observations led to the conclusion that glutamine precursors and citrate are either produced in different types of astrocytes or in different tricarboxylic acid cycles, situated in functionally different mitochondria in the same cell, and that in all likelihood pyruvate carboxylase is expressed differently in these mitochondria.
© 1993 S. Karger AG, Basel
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