Meats, Processed Meats, Obesity, Weight Gain and Occurrence of Diabetes among Adults: Findings from Adventist Health StudiesVang A.a · Singh P.N.b · Lee J.W.a · Haddad E.H.c · Brinegar C.H.d
Departments of aHealth Promotion and Education, bEpidemiology and Biostatistics, and cNutrition, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, and dDepartment of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, Calif., USA
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
Article / Publication Details
Aim: To examine the relation between meat intake and diabetes occurrence in adults. Methods: In a prospective cohort study we examined the relation between diet and incident diabetes recorded among 8,401 cohort members (ages 45–88 years) of the Adventist Mortality Study and Adventist Health Study (California, USA) who were non-diabetic at baseline. During the 17-year follow-up, we identified 543 incident diabetes cases. Results: (1) Subjects who were weekly consumers of all meats were 29% (OR = 1.29; 95% CI 1.08, 1.55) more likely (relative to zero meat intake) to develop diabetes. (2) Subjects who consumed any processed meats (salted fish and frankfurters) were 38% (OR = 1.38; 95% CI 1.05–1.82) more likely to develop diabetes. (3) Long-term adherence (over a 17-year interval) to a diet that included at least weekly meat intake was associated with a 74% increase (OR = 1.74; 95% CI 1.36–2.22) in odds of diabetes relative to long-term adherence to a vegetarian diet (zero meat intake). Further analyses indicated that some of this risk may be attributable to obesity and/or weight gain – both of which were strong risk factors in this cohort. It is noteworthy that even after control for weight and weight change, weekly meat intake remained an important risk factor (OR = 1.38; 95% CI 1.06–1.08) for diabetes. Conclusions: Our findings raise the possibility that meat intake, particularly processed meats, is a dietary risk factor for diabetes.
© 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
- Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Nelson DE, Engelgau MM, Vinicor F, Marks JS: Diabetes trends in the US: 1990–1998. Diabetes Care 2000;23:1278–1283.
- King H, Aubert RE, Herman WH: Global burden of diabetes, 1995–2025: prevalence, numerical estimates, and projections. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1414–1431.
- Astrup A: Healthy lifestyles in Europe: prevention of obesity and type II diabetes by diet and physical activity. Public Health Nutr 2001;4:499–515.
- Ford ES, Mokdad AH: Fruit and vegetable consumption and diabetes mellitus incidence among US adults. Prev Med 2001;32:33–39.
- Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hamalainen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Louheranta A, Rastas M, Salminen V, Uusitupa M, Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study Group: Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1343–1350.
- Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA: Nathan DM, Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group: Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002;346:393–403.
Rewers M, Hamman RF: Risk factors for non-insulin-dependent diabetes; in Diabetes in America, ed 2. National Diabetes Data Group, National Institutes of Health National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH Publ No 95-1468, 1995.
- Reaven GM: Insulin resistance, the insulin resistance syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Panminerva Med 2005;47:201–210.
- Ferrannini E, Galvan AQ, Gastaldelli A, Camastra S, Sironi AM, Toschi E, Baldi S, Frascerra S, Monzani F, Antonelli A, Nannipieri M, Mari A, Seghieri G, Natali A: Insulin: new roles for an ancient hormone. Eur J Clin Invest 1999;29:842–852.
- Schulze MB, Hoffmann K, Manson JE, Willett WC, Meigs JB, Weikert C, Heidemann C, Colditz GA, Hu FB: Dietary pattern, inflammation, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;82:675–684.
- Provonsha S, Wade C, Sherma A: Syndrome-AC: non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and the anabolic/catabolic paradox. Med Hypotheses 1998;51:429–438.
- Oppert JM, Nadeau A, Tremblay A, Despres JP, Theriault G, Deriaz O, Bouchard C: Plasma glucose, insulin, and glucagon before and after long-term overfeeding in identical twins. Metabolism 1995;44:96–105.
- Charlton MR, Adey DB, Nair KS: Evidence for a catabolic role of glucagon during an amino acid load. J Clin Invest 1996;98:90–99.
- Gray R, Butler P, Beers T, Kryshak E, Rizza R: Comparison of the ability of bread versus bread plus meat to treat and prevent subsequent hypoglycemia in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:1508–1511.
- Hubbard R, Kosch C, Sanchez A, Sabate J, Berk L, Shavlik G: Effects of dietary protein on serum insulin and glucagon levels in hyper- and normocholesterolemic men. Atherosclerosis 1989;76:55–61.
- Pereira MA, Jacobs DR Jr, Van Horn L, Slattery ML, Kartashov AI, Ludwig DS: Dairy consumption, obesity, and the insulin resistance syndrome in young adults: the CARDIA Study. JAMA 2002;287:2081–2089.
- Cohen D, Dodds R, Viberti G: Effect of protein restriction in insulin dependent diabetics at risk of nephropathy. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987;294:795–798.
- Evanoff G, Thompson C, Brown J, Weinman E: Prolonged dietary protein restriction in diabetic nephropathy. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:1129–1133.
- Gin H, Aparicio M, Potaux L, Merville P, Combe C, de Precigout V, Bouchet JL, Aubertin J: Low-protein, low-phosphorus diet and tissue insulin sensitivity in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with chronic renal failure. Nephron 1991;57:411–415.
- Bjelke E: Epidemiologic studies of cancer of the stomach, colon, and rectum; with special emphasis on the role of diet. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 1974;31:1–235.
West K: Epidemiology of Diabetes and Its Vascular Lesions. New York, Elsevier North-Holland, 1978.
- Gear JS, Mann JI, Thorogood M, Carter R, Jelfs R: Biochemical and haematological variables in vegetarians. Br Med J 1980;280:1415.
- Meyer K, Jacobs D, Kushi L, Folsom A: Dietary fat and incidence of type 2 diabetes in older Iowa women. Diabetes Care 2001;24:1528–1535.
- Van Dam R, Stampfer M, Willett W, Hu F, Rimm E: Dietary fat and meat intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in men. Diabetes Care 2002;25:417–424.
- Fung TT, Schulze M, Manson JE, Willett WC, Hu FB: Dietary patterns, meat intake, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:2235–2240.
- Snowdon DA: Animal product consumption and mortality because of all causes combined, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer in Seventh-day Adventists. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;48:739–748.
- Feskens E, Bowles C, Kromhout D: Inverse association between fish intake and risk of glucose intolerance in normoglycemic elderly men and women. Diabetes Care 1991;14:935–941.
- Esfarjani F, Azar MA, Gafarpour M: IDDM and early exposure of infant to cow’s milk and solid food. Indian J Pediatr 2001;68:107–110.
- Meloni T, Marinaro AM, Mannazzu MC, Ogana A, La Vecchia C, Negri E, Colombo C: IDDM and early infant feeding. Sardinian case-control study. Diabetes Care 1997;20:340–342.
- Kahn HA, Phillips RL, Snowdon DA, Choi W: Association between reported diet and all-cause mortality. Twenty-one-year follow-up on 27,530 adult Seventh-day Adventists. Am J Epidemiol 1984;119:775–787.
- Beeson WL, Mills PK, Phillips RL, Andress M, Fraser GE: Chronic disease among Seventh-day Adventists, a low-risk group. Rationale, methodology, and description of the population. Cancer 1989;64:570–581.
Lemon F, Walden R, Woods R: Cancer of the lung and mouth in Seventh-day Adventists. Cancer 1964;17:485–497.
- Singh PN, Haddad E, Knutsen SF, Fraser GE: The effect of menopause on the relation between weight gain and mortality among women. Menopause 2001;8:314–320.
- Singh PN, Lindsted KD: Body mass and 26-year risk of mortality from specific diseases among women who never smoked. Epidemiology 1998;9:246–254.
- Kaye S, Folsom A, Sprafka J, Prineas R, Wallace R: Increased incidence of diabetes mellitus in relation to abdominal adiposity in older women. J Clin Epidemiol 1991;44:329–334.
- Feskens E, Virtanen S, Ransanen L, Tuomilehto J, Stengard J, Pekkanen J, Nissinen A, Kromhout D: Dietary factors determining diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. A 20-year follow-up of the Finnish and Dutch cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Diabetes Care 1995;18:1104–1112.
- Feskens EJ, Kromhout D: Habitual dietary intake and glucose tolerance in euglycemic men: the Zutphen Study. Int J Epidemiol 1990;19:953–959.
- Marshall JA, Hamman R, Baxter J: High-fat, low-carbohydrate diet and the etiology of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: the San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. Am J Epidemiol 1991;134:590–603.
- Marshall JA, Hoag S, Shetterly S, Hamman RF: Dietary fat predicts conversion from impaired glucose tolerance to NIDDM. The San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 1994;17:50–56.
- Fujimoto WY, Bergstrom RW, Boyko EJ, Chen K, Kahn SE, Leonetti DL, McNeely MJ, Newell LL, Shofer JB, Wahl PW: Type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome in Japanese Americans. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2000;50(suppl):S73–S76.
- Maron D, Fair J, Haskell W: Saturated fat intake and insulin resistance in men with coronary artery disease. The Stanford Coronary Risk Intervention Project. Circulation 1991;84:2020–2027.
- Parker D, Weiss S, Troisi R, Cassano P, Vokonas P, Landsberg L: Relationship of dietary saturated fatty acids and body habitus to serum insulin concentrations: the Normative Aging Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;58:129–136.
- Virtanen SM, Feskens EJ, Rasanen L, Fidanza F, Tuomilehto J, Giampaoli S, Nissinen A, Kromhout D: Comparison of diets of diabetic and non-diabetic elderly men in Finland, The Netherlands and Italy. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:181–186.
- Nickander KK, McPhee BR, Low PA, Tritschler H: Alpha-lipoic acid: antioxidant potency against lipid peroxidation of neural tissues in vitro and implications for diabetic neuropathy. Free Radic Biol Med 1996;21:631–639.
- Axelrod L, Camuso J, Williams E, Kleinman K, Briones E, Schoenfeld D: Effects of a small quantity of omega–3 fatty acids on cardiovascular risk factors in NIDDM. A randomized, prospective, double-blind, controlled study. Diabetes Care 1994;17:37–44.
- Krishna Mohan I, Das UN: Prevention of chemically induced diabetes mellitus in experimental animals by polyunsaturated fatty acids. Nutrition 2001;17:126–151.
- Lijinsky W: N-Nitroso compounds in the diet. Mutation Res 1999;443:129–138.
- Virtanen S, Jaakkola L, Rasanen L, Ylonen K, Aro A, Lounamaa R, Akerblom H, Tuomilehto J: Nitrate and nitrite intake and the risk of type 1 diabetes in Finnish children: Childhood Diabetes in Finland Study Group. Diabetes Med 1994;11:656–662.
- Helgason T, Jonasson MR. Evidence for a food additive as a cause of ketosis-prone diabetes. Lancet 1981;2:716–720.
- Dahlquist GG: Dietary factors and the risk of developing insulin dependent diabetes in childhood. BMJ 1990;300:1302–1306.
- Van Dam RM, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB: Dietary patterns and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in US men. Ann Intern Med 2002;136:201–209.
- Salmeron J, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Spiegelman D, Jenkins DJ, Stampfer MJ, Wing AL, Willett WC: Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care 1997;20:545–550.
- Friedman M, Brandon DL: Nutritional and health benefits of soy proteins. J Agric Food Chem 2001;49:1069–1086.
- Key TJ, Thorogood M, Appleby PN, Burr ML: Dietary habits and mortality in 11,000 vegetarians and health conscious people: results of a 17-year follow-up. BMJ 1996;313:775–779.
- Jiang R, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Liu S, Willett WC, Hu FB: Nut and peanut butter consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. JAMA 2002;288:2554–2560.
- Salmeron J, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Wing AL, Willett WC: Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA 1997;6:472–477.
- Sargeant LA, Khaw KT, Bingham S, Day NE, Luben RN, Oakes S, Welch A, Wareham NJ: Fruit and vegetable intake and population glycosylated haemoglobin levels: the EPIC-Norfolk Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001;5:342–348.
- Feskens, E: Can diabetes be prevented by vegetable fat? Diabetes Care 2001;24:1517–1518.
- Esposito K, Marfella R, Ciotola M, Di Palo C, Giugliano F, Giugliano G, D’Armiento M, D’Andrea F, Giugliano D: Effect of a Mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial. JAMA 2004;292:1440–1446.
Sabate J, Blix G: Vegetarian diets and obesity prevention; in Sabate J (ed): Vegetarian Nutrition. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2001, pp 91–108.
- Goldman N, Lin I-F, Weinstein M, Lin YH: Evaluating the quality of self-reports of hypertension and diabetes. J Clin Epidemiol 2003;56:148–154.
- Wu SC, Li CY, Ke DS: The agreement between self-reporting and clinical diagnosis for selected medical conditions among the elderly in Taiwan. Public Health 2000;114:137–142.
- Bensen JT, Liese AD, Rushing JT, Province M, Folsom AR, Rich SS, Higgins M: Accuracy of proband reported family history: the NHLBI Family Heart Study (FHS). Genet Epidemiol 1999;17:141–150.
- Fraser GE, Lindsted KD, Knusten SF, Beeson WL, Bennett H, Shavlik D: Validity of dietary recall over 20 years among California Seventh-day Adventists. Am J Epidemiol 1998;148:810–818.
Willett WC: Epidemiologic studies of diet and cancer. Prog Clin Biol Res 1990;346:59–68.
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.