Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Regular Article

Graphic Representation of Illness: A Novel Method of Measuring Patients’ Perceptions of the Impact of Illness

Büchi S.a,b · Sensky T.a · Sharpe L.a · Timberlake N.a

Author affiliations

a Imperial College School of Medicine, West Middlesex University Hospital, Isleworth, UK; b Division of Psychosocial Medicine, University of Zürich, Switzerland

Related Articles for ""

Psychother Psychosom 1998;67:222–225

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Login Information





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

CHF 38.00 *
EUR 35.00 *
USD 39.00 *

Select

KAB

Buy a Karger Article Bundle (KAB) and profit from a discount!

If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in.


Save over 20% compared to the individual article price.
Learn more

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restrictions apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00


Select

Subscribe

  • Access to all articles of the subscribed year(s) guaranteed for 5 years
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select

* The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Regular Article

Published online: July 31, 1998
Issue release date: July – October 1998

Number of Print Pages: 4
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 0033-3190 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0348 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/PPS

Abstract

Background: Health outcome is multi-faceted, and for both research and clinical practice, greater knowledge of its facets is required. The Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM) was developed as a simple, rapid measure of the current impact of illness and symptoms on the individual. Methods: The PRISM task was completed by 26 outpatients with rheumatoid arthritis participating in a larger study of psychosocial correlates of arthritis, which included assessment of disease variables, functional impairment, pain, depression and patients’ appraisals of their illness. In the PRISM task, the patient was asked to imagine that a small board represents his/her life and a fixed disk on the board represents his/her ‘self’. The task was to place another (Illness) disk on the board to represent the current importance of illness in the patients’ life. The main outcome measure was the distance between the Self and Illness disks. Findings: Only 2 patients had difficulty understanding the task. PRISM distance did not correlate with any disease variables. It correlated inversely with pain, functional impairment and depression, and positively with coping resources. PRISM distance correlated with perceived control over illness and negatively with awareness of illness. Interpretation: PRISM is an innovative measure, simple and well accepted by patients. It appears to measure what in German is termed leidensdruck, the burden of suffering due to illness. It offers a promising measure of an intangible but important health outcome, hitherto neglected, applicable to research interventions and clinical practice.


References

  1. Sensky T: Patient’s reactions to illness: Cognitive factors determine responses and are amenable to treatment. Br Med J 1990;300:622–623.
  2. Sensky T, Catalan J: Asking patients about their treatment: Why their answers should not always be taken at face value. Br Med J 1992;305:1109–1110.
  3. Bowling A: Measuring Disease: A Review of Disease-Specific Quality of Life Measurement Scales. Buckingham, Open University Press, 1995.
  4. Bech P: Rating Scales for Psychopathology, Health Status and Quality of Life: A Comendium of Documentation in Accordance with the DSM-IIIR and WHO Systems. Berlin, Springer, 1993.
  5. Cairns J: Measuring health outcomes: Condition specific and patient specific measures are of limited use when allocating resources. Br Med J 1996;133:6.
  6. Arnett FC, Edworthy SM, Bloch DA, McShane DJ, Fries JF, Cooper NS, et al: The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1988;31:315–324.
  7. Fries JF, Spitz P, Kraines RJ, Holman HR: Measurement of patient outcome in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1980;23:137–145.
  8. Stucki G, Liang MH, Stucki S, Bruhlmann P, Michel BA: A self-administeed rheumatoid arthritis disease activity index (RADAI) for epidemiologic research. Arthritis Rheum 1995;38:795–798.
    External Resources
  9. Ware JE: SF-36 Physical and Mental Health Summary Scales: A User’s Guide. Boston, Medical Outcomes Trust, 1994.
  10. Zigmond AS, Snaith RP: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1983;67:361–370.
  11. Antonovsky A: Unraveling the Mystery of Health: How People Manage Stress and Stay Well. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, 1987.
  12. Weinman J, Petrie KJ, Ross-Morris R, Horne R: The Illness Perception Questionnaire: A new method for assessing cognitive representations of illness. Psychol Health 1996;11:431–445.
  13. Büchi S, Sensky T, Allard S, Stoll T, Schnyder U, Klaghofer R, Buddeberg C: Sense of coherence – a protective factor for depression in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol, in press.
  14. Michels KB, Rosner BA: Data trawling: To fish or not to fish. Lancet 1996;348:1152–1153.
  15. Flor H, Turk DC: Chronic pain and rheumatoid arthritis: Predicting pain and disability from cognitive variables. J Behav Med 1988;11:251–265.
  16. Affleck G, Tennen H, Pfeiffer C, Field J: Appraisals of control and predictability in adapting to a chronic disease. J Pers Soc Psychol 1987;53:273–279.
  17. Fitzpatrick R, Newman S, Lamb R, Shipley M: Helplessness and control in rheumatoid arthritis. Int J Health Sci 1990;1:17–23.
  18. Hawley DJ, Wolfe F, Cathey MA: The sense of coherence questionnaire in patients with rheumatic disorders. J Rheumatol 1992;19:1912–1918.
  19. Smith TW, Peck JR, Milano RA, Ward JR: Cognitive distorsion in rheumatoid arthritis: Relationship to pain and disability. J Consult Clin Psychol 1988;56:412–416.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Regular Article

Published online: July 31, 1998
Issue release date: July – October 1998

Number of Print Pages: 4
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 0033-3190 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0348 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/PPS


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.