Tuberculosis in Active Dialysis Patients in JeddahShohaib S.A.a · Scrimgeour E.M.a · Shaerya F.b
aDepartment of Medicine, National Guard Khalid Hospital, and bDepartment of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
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The incidence of tuberculosis in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia remains high. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of Tuberculosis among haemodialysis patients, since they are highly susceptible to this infection. A retrospective study, over a 5-year period, was carried out in the Renal Units of two large hospitals in Jeddah. Diagnosis was established by Ziehl Neelsen microscopy and culture of specimens on Lowenstein-Jensen media, radiological and histological examinations. Tuberculosis was diagnosed in 17 of 210 patients on hemodialysis. Pulmonary tuberculosis was present in 10 cases and tuberculous lymphadenitis in 8 cases. One patient had both pulmonary and lymph node involvement while another one had both pulmonary and peritoneal tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in sputum in 5 cases, by lymph node histopathology in 5 cases, and combined radiological and clinical evidence in the remaining patients. The Mantoux test was positive in 9 (60%) cases. Eight patients were diabetics (47%) and there appears to be some association of tuberculosis with diabetes in patients on dialysis. Treatment with first-line anti-tuberculosis agents was continued for 6–18 months. Fourteen (82%) patients were completely cured while 3 showed clinical improvement only. The study showed that successful therapy of tuberculosis in this group of dialysis patients could be achieved but high index of suspicion is required to recognize the unusual presentation in this group of patients so that early diagnosis can be achieved and prompt treatment instituted. Diabetic patients presenting for dialysis, in areas with high endemicity for tuberculosis, chemoprophylaxis with anti-tuberculosis agents should be considered.
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