The Sebaceous Gland and Acne – 40 Years OnCunliffe W.J.
Skin Research Centre, University of Leeds, UK
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The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the aetiology of acne and its treatment but more importantly to stress throughout this review the immense contributions made by Prof. J.S. Strauss in the field of sebaceous gland and acne research.
Strauss JS, Pochi PE: The quantative gravimetric determination of sebum production. J Invest Dermatol 1961;36:293–297.
Pochi PE, Strauss JS: Sebum production, casual sebum levels, titratable acidity of sebum and urinary fractional 17-ketosteroid excretion in males with acne. J Invest Dermatol 1964;43: 383–388.
- Pochi PE, Strauss JS: Endocrinologic control of the development and activity of the human sebaceous gland. J Invest Dermatol 1974;62: 191–201.
- Pochi PE, Strauss JS, Rao CS, et al: Plasma testosterone and estrogen levels, urine testosterone excretion, and sebum production in males with acne vulgaris. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1965;25:1660–1664.
- Ebling FJ: Hormonal control and methods of measuring sebaceous gland activity. J Invest Dermatol 1974;62:161–171.
- Imperato-McGinley J, Gautier T, Cai L-Q, Yee B, Epstein J, Pochi P: The androgen control of sebum production: Studies of subjects with dihydrotestosterone deficiency and complete androgen insensitivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993;76:524–528.
- Thiboutot D, Harris G, Iles V, Cimis G, Gilliland K, Hagari S: Activity of the type 1 5-alpha-reductase exhibits regional differences in isolated sebaceous glands and whole skin. J Invest Dermatol 1995;105:209–214.
- Lucky AW, Biro FM, Huster GA, Leach AD, Morrison JA, Ratterman J: Acne vulgaris in premenarchal girls: An early sign of puberty associated with rising levels of dehydroepiandrosterone. Arch Dermatol 1994;130: 308–314.
- Lucky AW, McClure J, Rosenfield RL, et al: Plasma androgens in women with acne vulgaris. J Invest Dermatol 1983;81:70–74.
Odlind V, Carlstrom K, Michaelsson C, et al: Plasma androgenic activity in women with acne vulgaris and in healthy girls before, during and after puberty. Clin Endocrinol 1982; 16:243–249.
- Carmina E, Lobo RA: Evidence for increased andosterone metabolism in some normoandrogenic women with acne. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993;76:1111–1114.
- Schmidt JB, Spona J, Huber J: Androgen receptor in hirsutism and acne. Gynecol Obstet Invest 1986;22:206–211.
- Piérard GE: Follicle to follicle heterogeneity of sebum excretion. Dermatologica 1986;173: 61–65.
- Piérard GE, Piérard-Franchimont C, Kligman AM: Kinetics of sebum excretion evaluated by the Sebutape-Chromameter technique. Skin Pharmacol 1993;6:38–44.
Strauss JS, Kligman AM: The pathologic dynamics of acne vulgaris. Br J Dermatol 1960; F5082:779–790.
- Holmes RL, Williams M, Cunliffe WJ: Pilosebaceous duct obstruction and acne. Br J Dermatol 1972;87:327–332.
- Plewig G, Fulton FE, Kligman AM: Cellular dynamics of comedo formation in acne vulgaris. Arch Dermatol Forsch 1971;242:12–29.
Knaggs HE, Holland DB, Morris C, Wood EJ, Cunliffe WJ: Quantification of cellular proliferation in acne using the monoclonal antibody Ki-67. Soc Invest Dermatol 1994;102:89–92.
- Kanaar P: Follicular-keratinogenic properties of fatty acids in the external ear canal of the rabbit. Dermatologica 1971;142:14–22.
- Kligman AM, Katz AC: Pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. I. Comedogenesis properties of human sebum in external ear canal of the rabbit. Arch Dermatol 1968;98:53–57.
- Wertz PW, Miethke MC, Long SA, et al: The composition of the ceramides from human stratum corneum and from comedones. J Invest Dermatol 1985;84:410–412.
- Downing DT, Stewart ME, Wertz PW, et al: Essential fatty acids and acne. J Am Acad Dermatol 1986;14:221–225.
- Thiboutot D, Knaggs H, Gilliland K, Hagari S: Activity of type 1 5α-reductase is greater in the follicular infrainfundibulum compared with the epidermis. Br J Dermatol 1997;136: 166–171.
- Guy R, Ridden C, Barth J, Kealey T: Isolation and maintenance of the human pilosebaceous duct: 13-cis-Retinoic acid acts directly on the duct in vitro. Br J Dermatol 1993;128: 242–248.
- Guy R, Green MR, Kealey T: Modelling acne in vitro. J Invest Dermatol 1996;106:176–182.
- Marples RR: The microflora of the face and acne lesions. J Invest Dermatol 1974;62: 326–331.
- Holland KT, Cunliffe WJ, Roberts CD: The role of bacteria in acne vulgaris – A new approach. Clin Exp Dermatol 1978;3:253–257.
- Gribbon EM, Shoesmith JG, Cunliffe WJ, Holland KT: The microaerophily and photosensitivity of Propionibacterium acnes. J Appl Bacteriol 1994;77:583–590.
- Norris JF, Cunliffe WJ: A histological and immunocytochemical study of early acne lesions. Br J Dermatol 1988;118:651–659.
Ingham E, Holland KT, Gowland C, et al: Studies of the extracellular proteolytic activity produced by Propionibacterium acnes. J Appl. Bacteriol 1983;54:263–271.
- Puhvel SM, Sakamoto M: An in vitro evaluation of the inflammatory effect of purified comedonal components in human skin. J Invest Dermatol 1977;69:401–406.
Webster GF: Inflammation in acne vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol 1995;33(2, pt 1):247–253.
- Walters CE, Ingham E, Eady EA, Cove JH, Kearney JN, Cunliffe WJ: In vitro modulation of keratinocyte-derived interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived IL-1 beta release in response to cutaneous commensal microorganisms. Infect Immun 1995;63:1223–1228.
- Strauss JS, Rapini RP, Shalita AR, et al: Isotretinoin therapy for acne: Results of a multicenter dose-response study. J Am Acad Dermatol 1984;10:490–496.
- Leyden JJ, McGinley KJ, Foglia AN: Qualitative and quantitative changes in cutaneous bacteria associated with systemic isotretinoin therapy for acne conglobata. J Invest Dermatol 1986;86:390–393.
- Pochi PE, Strauss SS: Sebaceous gland suppression with ethinyl estradiol and diethylstilbestrol. Arch Dermatol 1973;108:210–214.
- Farrell LN, Strauss JS, Stranieri AM: The treatment of severe cystic acne with 13-cis-retinoic acid: Evaluation of sebum production and the clinical response in a multiple dose trial. J Am Acad Dermatol 1980;3:602–611.
- Karvonen S: Acne fulminans: Report of clinical findings and treatment of twenty-four patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993;28:572–579.
- Plewig G, Jansen T, Kligman A: Pyoderma faciale – A review and report of 20 additional cases: Is it rosacea? Arch Dermatol 1992;128: 1611–1617.
- Harms M, Masouyé I, Radeff B: The relapses of cystic acne after isotretinoin treatment are age related: A long-term follow-up study. Dermatologica 1986;172:148–153.
- Piagatto PD, Fiorini A, Fiva F, et al: Effects of isotretinoin on the neutrophil chemotaxis in cystic acne. Dermatologica 1983;167:16–18.
- Marks VJ, Briggaman RA: Pyoderma faciale: Successful treatment with isotretinoin. J Am Acad Dermatol 1987;17:1062–1063.
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