Acute Stroke Management: Brain Protection and Reperfusion
High Blood Pressure in Acute Ischaemic Stroke – Broadening Therapeutic HorizonsSare G.M. · Geeganage C. · Bath P.M.W.
Stroke Trials Unit, Institute of Neuroscience, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
High blood pressure (BP) is present in 80% of patients with acute ischaemic stroke and is independently associated with poor outcome. Although this epidemiology suggests that BP should be lowered acutely, concerns about dysfunctional cerebral autoregulation suggest otherwise. Several small randomised trials have assessed cerebral blood flow with various antihypertensive classes and agents in acute ischaemic stroke. Overall, these studies showed no change in cerebral perfusion, although the numbers of studies and patients are limited and there are methodological problems with some trials. There are no large published randomised trials assessing outcome with BP lowering in acute stroke. Calcium channel blockers did not alter outcome after ischaemic stroke (29 trials, 7,665 patients). However, some trials, especially those testing intravenous calcium channel blockers (INWEST) or oral β-receptor antagonists (BEST) reported real or potential hazard. In contrast, oral candesartan reduced combined vascular events in 339 patients with ischaemic stroke (ACCESS) although it had no effect on disability. The CHHIPS trial found that death was reduced in patients randomised to active treatment (labetalol, lisinopril) as compared with placebo. Two larger trials reported that glucose-potassium-insulin therapy (GIST) or magnesium (IMAGES) lowered BP but had no effect on functional outcome. The INTERACT pilot trial studied patients with intracerebral haemorrhage and found that an intensive BP-lowering regime non-significantly reduced haematoma expansion. There are four large ongoing trials examining whether to continue or stop pre-stroke antihypertensive therapy (COSSACS, ENOS) or lower BP in acute stroke (ENOS, SCAST) or haemorrhage (INTERACT 2).
© 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.