Endocrine Involvement in Developmental SyndromesEditor(s): Cappa M. (Rome)
Maghnie M. (Genova)
Loche S. (Cagliari)
Bottazzo G.F. (Roma)
Cryptorchidism as Part of the Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome: The Environmental ConnectionMain K.M.a · Skakkebæk N.E.a · Toppari J.b
aUniversity Department of Growth and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; bDepartments of Physiology and Paediatrics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
Cryptorchidism is part of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), which includes other male reproductive disorders such as hypospadias, testis cancer and reduced semen quality. These diseases appear to be linked by common pathogenic mechanisms, interfering with normal fetal testis development. Testis development and descent is dependent on androgens and thus on an intact hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. Although cryptorchidism occurs in rare syndromes and genetic disorders, in the majority of children the etiology remains open. Many maternal and fetal risk factors have been previously identified but recently, scientific focus has also been directed to environmen-tal hormone disrupting chemicals and lifestyle, as the prevalence of testis cancer and cryptorchidism has increased and semen quality decreased over few decades in several countries. Some persistent environmental chemicals, e.g. polychlorinated pesticides and polybrominated flame retardants, were associated with testicular maldescent and testis cancer. In addition, prenatal exposure to phthalates was negatively correlated to testosterone levels and anogenital distance as a measure of androgen effect in infant boys. Alcohol consumption and maternal smoking during pregnancy also appeared to be a risk factor for cryptorchidism. Thus, current evidence suggests that the development of the male reproductive tract may be susceptible to adverse effects of environmental hormone disrupters.
© 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.