Visual Contributions to Postural Stability in Older AdultsLord S.R. · Menz H.B.
Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Randwick, Sydney, N.S.W., Australia
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
Background: With advancing age, there is a generalized reduction in visual functioning which has been associated with impaired postural stability and increased risk of falls. However, little is known about which visual abilities are the most important in the control of postural sway when standing. Objective: To determine whether specific visual abilities predict stability when standing on firm and compliant surfaces. Methods: Tests of visual function, peripheral sensation, strength, reaction time and sway were administered to 156 community-dwelling men and women aged 63–90 years. The visual tests included high- and low-contrast visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, depth perception, stereopsis and lower visual field size. Postural sway was measured with eyes open on a firm and a compliant foam rubber surface. Results: On the firm surface, sway was significantly associated with only one sensorimotor measure: proprioception in the lower limbs. In contrast, on the compliant surface, sway was associated with all of the visual measures, quadriceps strength and reaction time. Multiple regression analysis revealed that contrast sensitivity, stereopsis and quadriceps strength were significant independent predictors of total sway when subjects stood on the compliant surface. Conclusion: The study findings confirm the importance of vision, in particular contrast sensitivity and stereopsis, in the control of posture under challenging conditions, and suggest some mechanisms for the association between impaired vision and falls in older people.
© 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
- Magnusson M, Endom H, Johansson R, Wiklund J: Significance of pressor input from the human feet in anterior-posterior postural control. Acta Otolaryngol 1990;110:182–188.
- Lord SR, Clark RD, Webster IW: Postural stability and associated physiological factors in a population of aged persons. J Gerontol 1991;46:M69–M76.
- Lord SR, Caplan GA, Colagiuri R, Ward JA: Sensori-motor function in older persons with diabetes. Diab Med 1993;10:614–618.
- Paulus WM, Straube A, Brandt T: Visual stabilization of posture. Physiological stimulus characteristics and clinical aspects. Brain 1984;107:1143–1163.
Lee DN, Lishman JR: Visual proprioceptive control of stance. J Hum Mov Stud 1975;1:87–95.
- Lichtenstein MJ, Shields SL, Shiavi RG, Burger MC: Clinical determinants of biomechanics platform measures of balance in aged women. J Am Geriatr Soc 1988;36:996–1002.
- Manchester D, Woollacott M, Zedrerbauer-Hylton N, Marin O: Visual, vestibular and somatosensory contributions to balance control in the older adult. J Gerontol 1989;44:M118–M127.
- Elliott DB, Patla AE, Flanagan JG, Spaulding S, Rietdyk S, Strong G, Brown S: The Waterloo Vision and Mobility Study: Postural control strategies in subjects with ARM. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 1995;15:553–559.
- Pfeiffer E: A short portable mental status questionnaire for the assessment of organic brain deficit in elderly patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 1975;23:433–441.
- Verbaken JH, Johnston AW: Population norms for edge contrast sensitivity. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1986;63:724–732.
- Patla AE, Vickers JN: Where and when do we look as we approach and step over an obstacle in the travel path? Neuroreport 1997;8:3661–3665.
Graham CH: Visual space perception; in Graham CH (ed): Vision and Visual Perception. New York, Wiley, 1965, pp 504–547.
- Lord SR, Castell S: Physical activity program for older persons: Effect on balance strength, neuromuscular control, and reaction time. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1994;75:648–652.
- Lord SR, Clark RD, Webster IW: Physiological factors associated with falls in an elderly population. J Am Geriatr Soc 1991;39:1194–2000.
SPSS Inc: SPSS for Windows Base System User’s Guide. Chicago, SPSS Inc, 1993.
- Fitzpatrick R, McCloskey DI: Proprioceptive, visual and vestibular thresholds for the perception of sway during standing in humans. J Physiol 1994;478:173–186.
- Turano K, Rubin GS, Hardman SJ, Chee E, Fried LP: Visual stabilization of posture in the elderly: Fallers vs. nonfallers. Optom Vis Sci 1994;71:761–769.
- Owen DH: Maintaining posture and avoiding tripping. Optical information for detecting and controlling orientation and locomotion. Clin Geriatr Med 1985;1:581–599.
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.