Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Methodological Issues

Model-Free Analysis and Permutation Tests for Allelic Associations

Zhao J.H.a · Curtis D.b · Sham P.C.a

Author affiliations

aDepartment of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, and bJoint Academic Department of Psychological Medicine, St. Bartholomew’s and Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK

Related Articles for ""

Hum Hered 2000;50:133–139

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Login Information





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

CHF 38.00 *
EUR 35.00 *
USD 39.00 *

Select

KAB

Buy a Karger Article Bundle (KAB) and profit from a discount!

If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in.


Save over 20% compared to the individual article price.
Learn more

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restrictions apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00


Select

Subscribe

  • Access to all articles of the subscribed year(s) guaranteed for 5 years
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select

* The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Methodological Issues

Published online: November 24, 1999
Issue release date: November 1999

Number of Print Pages: 7
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 3

ISSN: 0001-5652 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0062 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/HHE

Abstract

In this short report, we address some practical problems in performing likelihood-based allelic association analysis of case-control data. Model-free statistics are proposed and their properties assessed by simulation, and procedures based on permutation tests are described for marker-marker as well as marker-disease associations. A memory-efficient algorithm is developed which enables several highly polymorphic markers to be analysed.

© 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel


References

  1. Xie X, Ott J: Testing linkage disequilibrium between a disease gene and marker loci. Am J Hum Genet 1993;53:1107.
  2. Terwilliger J, Ott J: Handbook of Human Genetic Linkage. Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.
  3. Curtis D, Sham PC: Model-free linkage analysis using likelihoods. Am J Hum Genet 1995;57:703–716.
  4. Zhao JH, Sham PC: Model-free allelic association analysis of case-control studies. Am J Med Genet (Neuropsychiatric Genet) 1997;74:604.
  5. Sham PC: Statistics in Human Genetics. Londo, Edward Arnold, 1998, p 159.
  6. Oudet C, Mornet E, Serre JL, Thomas F, Lentes-Zengerling S, Kretz C, Deluchat C, Tejada I, Boue A, Mandel JL: Linkage disequilibrium between the fragile X mutation and two closely linked CA repeats suggests that fragile X chromosomes are derived from a small number of founder chromosomes. Am J Hum Genet 1993;52:297–304.
    External Resources
  7. Knuth DE: The Art of Computer Programming. London, Addison-Wesley, 1998, vol 2: Seminumerical Algorithms, ed 3.
  8. Weir BS: Genetic Data Analysis: Methods for Discrete Population Genetic Data. Sunderland, Sinauer, 1990.
  9. Knuth DE: The Art of Computer Programming. London, Addison-Wesley, 1998, vol 3: Sorting and Searching, ed 2.
  10. Freeman MF, Tukey JW: Transformations related to the angular and square root. Ann Math Stat 1950;21:607–611.
  11. Murray R: Schizophrenia; in Murray R, Hill P, McGuffin P (eds): The Essentials of Postgraduate Psychiatry. London, Cambridge University Press, 1997, pp 281–309.
  12. Sham PC, Curtis D: Monte Carlo tests for associations between disease and alleles at highly polymorphic loci. Ann Hum Genet 1995;59:97–105.
    External Resources
  13. Cox A, Camp NJ, Nicklin MJH, di Giovine FS, Duff GW: An analysis of linkage disequilibrium in the interleukin-1 gene cluster, using a novel grouping method for multiallelic markers. Am J Hum Genet 1998;62:1180–1188.
  14. Long JC, Williams RC, Unbanek M: An E-M algorithm and testing strategy for multiple-locus haplotypes. Am J Hum Genet 1995;56:799–810.
  15. Hawley ME, Kidd KK: HAPLO: A program using the EM algorithm to estimate the frequencies of multi-site haplotypes. J Hered 1995;86:409–411.
  16. Weir BS: Genetic Data Analysis II. Sunderland, Sinauer, 1996.
  17. Zaykin D, Zhivotovsky L, Weir BS: Exact tests for association between alleles at arbitrary numbers of loci. Genetica 1995;96:169–178.
  18. Lewis PO, Zaykin D: Genetic Data Analysis: Computer program for the analysis of allelic data. http://chee.unm.edu/gda/1997.
  19. Schneider S, Kueffer JM, Roessli D, Excoffier L: Arlequin: A software for population genetic analysis. http://anthropologie.unige.ch/arlequin. 1998.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Methodological Issues

Published online: November 24, 1999
Issue release date: November 1999

Number of Print Pages: 7
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 3

ISSN: 0001-5652 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0062 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/HHE


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.