Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Original Paper

Free Access

Association between Enamel Hypoplasia and Dental Caries in Primary Second Molars: A Cohort Study

Hong L.a · Levy S.M.b, c · Warren J.J.b · Broffitt B.b

Author affiliations

aDepartment of Dental Public Health and Behavioral Science, School of Dentistry, University of Missouri- Kansas City, Kansas City, Mo.; bDepartment of Preventive and Community Dentistry, College of Dentistry, and cDepartment of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA

Corresponding Author

Liang Hong

Department of Dental Public Health, 396A School of Dentistry

University of Missouri-Kansas City, 650 East 25th Street

Kansas City, MO 64108-2784 (USA)

Tel. +1 816 235 6745, Fax +1 816 235 5472, E-Mail hongli@umkc.edu

Related Articles for ""

Caries Res 2009;43:345–353

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information












By signing up for MyKarger you will automatically participate in our year-End raffle.
If you Then Do Not wish To participate, please uncheck the following box.

Yes, I wish To participate In the year-End raffle And Get the chance To win some Of our most interesting books, And other attractive prizes.


I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess the longitudinal relationships between enamel hypoplasia and caries experience of primary second molars. The study sample was 491 subjects who received dental examinations at both age 5 and 9 by the calibrated examiners. Four primary second molars (n = 1,892) were scored for the presence of enamel hypoplasia for each participant. Caries presence and number of decayed and filled surfaces (dfs) were determined at age 5 and 9. The relationships between enamel hypoplasia and caries experience were assessed. Among primary second molars, 3.9% of children and 1.7% of primary second molars had enamel hypoplasia. At age 5, 36.8% of children with hypoplasia had caries, while 16.9% of children without enamel hypoplasia had caries. At age 9, the corresponding numbers were 52.6% for children with hypoplasia and 34.5% for children without hypoplasia, respectively. At the tooth level, for age 5, 28.1% of teeth with hypoplasia had caries (mean dfs = 0.40), and 7.6% of teeth without hypoplasia had caries (mean dfs = 0.11). At age 9, the corresponding numbers were 41.9% (mean dfs = 0.76) for teeth with hypoplasia and 18.3% (mean dfs = 0.34) for teeth without hypoplasia. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, teeth of subjects with enamel hypoplasia had a significantly higher risk for caries at age 5 and 9 after controlling for other risk factors. Enamel hypoplasia appears to be a significant risk factor for caries and should be considered in caries risk assessment.

© 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel


References

  1. American Dental Association: Caries risk assessment classification. http://www.ada.org/prof/resources/topics/topics_caries_instructions.pdf. Accessed March 2009.
  2. Bibby BG, Shern RJ (eds): Methods of Caries Prediction. Proceedings of a Workshop Conference. Washington, Information Retrieval, 1978.
  3. Caufield PW: Dental caries: an infectious and transmissible disease: where have we been and where are we going? NY State Dent J 2005;71:23–27.
    External Resources
  4. Daneshkazemi AR, Davari A: Assessment of DMFT and enamel hypoplasia among junior high school children in Iran. J Contemp Dent Pract 2005;6:85–92.
  5. Disney JA, Graves RC, Stamm JW, Bohannan HM, Abernathy JR, Zack DD: The University of North Carolina Caries Risk Assessment study: further developments in caries risk prediction. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1992;20:64–75.
  6. Ellwood RP, O’Mullane D: The association between developmental enamel defects and caries in populations with and without fluoride in their drinking water. J Public Health Dent 1996;56:76–80.
  7. Evans S, Li L: A comparison of goodness of fit tests for the logistic GEE model. Stat Med 2005;24:1245–1261.
  8. Featherstone JD: An updated understanding of the mechanism of dental decay and its prevention. Nutr Q 1990;14:5–11.
  9. Featherstone JD: The science and practice of caries prevention. J Am Dent Assoc 2000;131:887–899.
  10. Featherstone JD, Adair SM, Anderson MH, Berkowitz RJ, Bird WF, Crall JJ, Den Besten PK, Donly KJ, Glassman P, Milgrom P, Roth JR, Snow R, Stewart RE: Caries management by risk assessment: consensus statement, April 2002. J Calif Dent Assoc 2003;31:257–269.
    External Resources
  11. Fejerskov O, Kidd EAM: Clinical cariology and operative dentistry in the twenty-first century; in Fejerskov O, Kidd EAM (eds): Dental Caries, the Disease and Clinical Management. Oxford, Blackwell Munksgaard, 2003, pp 3–7.
  12. Fontana M, Zero DT: Assessing patients’ caries risk. J Am Dent Assoc 2006;137:1231–1239.
  13. Hausen H: Caries prediction; in Fejerskov O, Kidd EAM (eds): Dental Caries, the Disease and Clinical Management. Oxford, Blackwell Munksgaard, 2003, pp 327–339.
  14. Hausen H, Seppä L, Fejerskov O: Can caries be predicted?; in Thylstrup A, Fejerskov O (eds): Textbook of Clinical Cariology, ed 2. Copenhagen, Munksgaard, 1994, pp 393–411.
  15. Hong L, Levy SM, Warren JJ, Bergus GR, Dawson DV, Wefel JS: Primary tooth fluorosis and amoxicillin use during infancy. J Public Health Dent 2004;64:38–44.
  16. Horowitz AM: A report on the NIH consensus development conference on diagnosis and management of dental caries throughout life. J Dent Res2004;83:C15–C17.
  17. Ismail AI, Brodeur JM, Gagnon P, Payette M, Picard D, Hamalian T, Olivier M, Eastwood BJ: Prevalence of noncavitated and cavitated carious lesions in a random sample of 7–9-year-old schoolchildren in Montreal. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1992;20:250–255.
  18. Kanchanakamol U, Tuongratanaphan S, Tuongratanaphan S, Lertpoonvilaikul W, Chittaisong C, Pattanaporn K, Navia JM, Davies GN: Prevalence of developmental enamel defects and dental caries on rural preschool Thai children. Community Dent Health 1996;13:204–207.
  19. Lai PY, Seow WK, Tudehope DI, Rogers Y: Enamel hypoplasia and dental caries in very-low birthweight children: a case controlled, longitudinal study. Pediatr Dent 1997;19:42–49.
  20. Leverett DH, Proskin HM, Featherstone JD: Caries risk assessment in a longitudinal discrimination study. J Dent Res 1993;72:538–543.
  21. Levy SM, Kiritsy MC, Slager SL, Warren JJ: Patterns of dietary fluoride supplement use during infancy. J Public Health Dent 1998;58:228–233.
  22. Levy SM, Kiritsy MC, Slager SL, Warren JJ, Kohout FJ: Patterns of fluoride dentifrice use among infants. Pediatr Dent 1997;19:50–55.
  23. Li Y, Navia JM, Bian JY: Caries experience in deciduous dentition of rural Chinese children 3–5 years old in relation to the presence or absence of enamel hypoplasia. Caries Res 1996;30:8–15.
  24. Mancl LA, Leroux BG, DeRouen TA: Between-subject and within-subject statistical information in dental research. J Dent Res 2000;79:1778–1781.
  25. Matee MIN, Van’t Hof MA, Maselle SY, Mikx FHM, van Palenstein Herlderman WH: Nursing caries, linear hypoplasia, and nursing and weaning habits in Tanzanian infants. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1994;22:289–293.
  26. Milgrom P, Riedy CA, Weinstein P, Tanner AC, Manibusan LB: Dental caries and its relationship to bacterial infection hypoplasia, diet and oral hygiene in 6- to 36-month-old children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2000;28:295–306.
  27. Montero MJ, Douglass JM, Mathieu GM: Prevalence of dental caries and enamel defects in Connecticut Head Start children. Pediatr Dent 2003;25:235–239.
    External Resources
  28. National Institute of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services: Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institute of Health, 2000.
  29. Oliveira AFB, Chaves AMB, Rosenblatt A: The influence of enamel defects on the development of early childhood caries in a population with low socioeconomic status: a longitudinal study. Caries Res 2006;40:296–302.
  30. Pascoe L, Seow WK: Enamel hypoplasia and dental caries in Australian Aboriginal children: prevalence and correlation between the two diseases. Pediatr Dent 1994;16:193–199.
  31. Pendrys DG: The Fluorosis Risk Index: a method for investigating risk factors. J Public Health Dent 1990;50:291–299.
  32. Pitts NB: Diagnostic tools and measurements – impact on appropriate care. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1997;25:24–35.
  33. Pitts NB, Fyffe HE: The effect of varying diagnostic thresholds upon clinical caries data for a low prevalence group. J Dent Res 1988;67:592–596.
  34. Powell V: Caries risk assessment: relevance to the practitioner. J Am Dent Assoc 1998;129:349–353.
  35. Reich E, Lussi A, Newbrun E: Caries risk assessment. Int Dent J 1999;49:15–26.
  36. Russell AL: The differential diagnosis of fluoride and non-fluoride enamel opacities. J Public Health Dent 1961;21:143–146.
    External Resources
  37. Seow WK: Enamel hypoplasia in the primary dentition: a review. J Dent Child 1991;58:441–452.
  38. Shenkin JD, Broffitt B, Levy SM, Warren JJ: The association between environmental tobacco smoke and primary tooth caries. J Public Health Dent 2004;64:184–186.
  39. Slayton RL, Warren JJ, Kanellis MJ, Levy SM, Islam M: Prevalence of enamel hypoplasia and isolated opacities in the primary dentition. Pediatr Dent 2001;23:32–36.
  40. Suckling GW: Development defects of enamel – historical and present-day perspectives of their pathogenesis. Adv Dent Res 1989;3:87–94.
  41. Vanobbergen J, Martens L, Lesaffre E, Bogaerts K, Declerck D: The value of a baseline caries risk assessment model in the primary dentition for the prediction of caries incidence in the permanent dentition. Caries Res 2001; 35:442–450.
  42. Warren JJ, Levy SM, Kanellis MJ: Dental caries in the primary dentition: assessing prevalence of cavitated and non-cavitated lesions. J Public Health Dent 2002;62:109–114.
  43. Zheng S, Deng H, Gao X: Studies on developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition of children with histories of low birth weight and prematurity and their susceptibility to dental caries. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 1998;33:270–272.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Accepted: May 21, 2009
Published online: August 01, 2009
Issue release date: October 2009

Number of Print Pages: 9
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 4

ISSN: 0008-6568 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-976X (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/CRE


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.