A Comparative Study of Axis I Antecedents before Age 18 of Unipolar Depression, Bipolar Disorder and SchizophreniaRubino I.A.a · Frank E.b · Croce Nanni R.a · Pozzi D.a · Lanza di Scalea T.a · Siracusano A.a
aDepartment of Psychiatry, University of Rome, Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; bDepartment of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa., USA
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Article / Publication Details
Background: Despite a large scientific literature on early clinical precursors of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and unipolar depression, few data are available on axis I disorders preceding the adult onset of these illnesses. Sampling and Methods: Disorders before the age of 18 years were retrospectively assessed with a structured interview in 3 groups of consecutive adult inpatients with DSM-IV diagnoses of schizophrenia (n = 197), major depressive disorder (n = 287) and bipolar disorder (n = 132). Only patients with adult onset of schizophrenia and of mania/hypomania were included. A sample of the general population served as control group (n = 300). Results and Conclusion: The clinical groups significantly outnumbered the control sample on the majority of early axis I diagnoses. Schizophrenia was significantly associated (1) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ADHD inattentive subtype, ADHD hyperactive subtype and primary nocturnal enuresis, compared to unipolar depression, and (2) with social phobia and ADHD inattentive subtype, compared to bipolar disorder. Oppositional defiant disorder was significantly associated with bipolar disorder, compared to the other clinical and control groups. The ADHD hyperactive subtype predicted the adult onset of bipolar disorder compared to unipolar depression. Externalizing disorders seem of special importance as regards the clinical pathways toward schizophrenia.
© 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel
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