Water for Haemodialysis and Related Therapies: Recent Standards and Emerging IssuesHoenich N.A.a · Levin R.b · Ronco C.c
aICM Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; bRenal Research Institute, New York, N.Y., USA; cSan Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy
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Dialysis is a well-established and widely used procedure. For a number of years, the focus has been on ensuring that water used in the preparation of dialysis fluid meets the required chemical and microbiological quality and complies with national or international standards which have recently been updated. Continued vigilance is required, in particular when new chemicals such as silver-stabilized hydrogen peroxide and chlorine dioxide are used to prevent growth of Legionella bacteria in hospital water systems, since residues are harmful to patients receiving dialysis. To achieve the required quality, large volumes of water are processed, and a substantial portion is sent to waste via the municipal sewer systems with little attempt to reuse such water on site. In view of concern about global warming and climate change, there is a need to adopt a more environmentally conscious attitude requiring dialysis providers to focus on this aspect of water usage.
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