Effect of Transmitters and Co-Transmitters of the Sympathetic Nervous System on Interleukin-6 Synthesis in Thymic Epithelial Cellsvon Patay B. · Kurz B. · Mentlein R.
Universität Kiel, Anatomisches Institut, Kiel, Deutschland
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
In the thymus, sympathetic nerves run in septa in close connection to subcapsular/perivascular thymic epithelial cells (TEC). Since TEC are supposed to create a microenvironment of cytokines necessary for the development of thymocytes to T cells, we investigated the influence of sympathetic transmitters and co-transmitters on interleukin-6 (IL-6) synthesis in cultivated rat TEC that express markers of perivascular/subcapsular TEC. Noradrenaline and ATP stimulated IL-6 production in the culture supernatants 14- and 23-fold over basal values after 24 h. Co-stimulation with noradrenaline and ATP yielded an additive effect. Synthesis of IL-6 was concentration-dependent upon ATP and appeared to be mediated by P2 purinoceptors. During 24 h stimulation with 1 mM ATP, two thirds of the ligand was degraded mainly to ADP, production of AMP and adenosine was minor or negligible. Thus, in TEC, transmitters and co-transmitters of the sympathetic nervous system have a co-stimulatory effect on synthesis of IL-6 that is an important factor for thymocyte differentiation and proliferation.
- Boyd RL, Tucek CL, Godfrey DI, Izon DJ, Wilson TJ, Davidson DJ, Bean AGD, Ladyman HM, Ritter MA, Hugo P: The thymic microenvironment. Immunol Today 1993;14:445–459.
- Kendall MD: Functional anatomy of the thymus microenviroment. J Anat 1991;177:1–29.
Le PT, Singer KH: Human thymic epithelial cells: Adhesion molecules and cytokine production. Int J Clin Lab Res 1987;23:56–60.
- Wolf SS, Cohen A: Expression of cytokines and their receptors by human thymocytes and thymic stromal cells. Immunology 1992;77:362–368.
- Kurz B, von Gaudecker B, Kranz A, Krisch B, Mentlein R: Calcitonin gene-related peptide and its receptor in the thymus. Peptides 1995;16:1497–1503.
- Kendall MD: The thymus: New views of an old gland. Endeavour 1992;16:158–163.
- Kurz B, Feindt J, von Gaudecker B, Kranz A, Loppnow H, Mentlein R: β-Adrenoceptor-mediated effects in rat cultured thymic epithelial cells. Br J Pharmacol 1997;120:1401–1408.
Kendall MD, Al-Shawaf H, Zaidi SA: The cholinergic and adrenergic innervation of the rat thymus. Adv Exp Med Biol 1998;237:255–261.
- Kendall MD, Atkinson BA, Muńoz FJ, de la Riva C, Clarke A, von Gaudecker B: The noradrenergic innervation of the rat thymus during pregnancy and in the post partum period. J Anat 1994;185:617–625.
Linden J: Purinergic systems; in Siegel GJ, Agranoff BW, Albers RW, Molinoff PB (eds): Basic Neurochemistry. New York, Raven Press, 1993, pp 401–416.
- Malec D: Purinergic receptors. Pol J Pharmacol 1996;48:457–465.
- Kurz B, von Gaudecker B, Krisch B, Mentlein R: Rat thymic epithelial cells in vitro and in situ: Characterisation by immunocytochemistry and morphology. Cell Tissue Res 1996;283:221–229.
- Karsten U, Wollenberger A: Improvements of the ethidium bromide method for direct fluorometric estimation of DNA and RNA in cell and tissue homogenates. Anal Biochem 1977;77:464–470.
- von Patay B, Loppnow H, Feindt J, Kurz B, Mentlein R: Catecholamines and lipopolysaccharide synergistically induce the release of interleukin-6 from thymic epithelial cells. J Neuroimmunol 1998;86:182–189.
- Liu P, Wen M, Hayashi J: Characterization of ATP receptor responsible for the activation of phospholipase A2 and stimulation of prostaglandin E2 production in thymic epithelial cells. Biochem J 1995;308:399–404.
- Tanabe OS, Akira T, Kamiya GG, Wong T, Hirano T, Kishimoto T: Genomic structure of the murine IL-6 gene: High degree of conservation of potential regulatory sequences between mouse and human. J Immunol 1988;141:3875–3881.
- Kishimoto T: The biology of interleukin-6. Blood 1989;74:1–10.
- Carding SR, Hayday AC, Bottomly K: Cytokines in T-cell development. Immunol Today 1991;12:239–245.
Takai Y, Wong GG, Clark SC, Burakoff SJ, Herman SH: B-cell stimulatory factor-2 is involved in the differentiation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. J Immunol 1987;40:508–513.
- Chen W-F, Fischer M, Frank G, Zlotnik A: Distinct patterns of lymphokine requirement for the proliferation of various subpopulations of activated thymocytes in single cell assay. J Immunol 1989;143:1598–1605.
- Suda T, Murray R, Guidos C, Zlotnik A: Growth-promoting activity of IL-1α, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in combination with IL-2, IL-4, or IL-7 on murine thymocytes. J Immunol 1990;144:3039–3045.
- Le J, Frederick G, Reis LFL, Diamantstein T, Hirano T, Kishimoto T, Vileck J: Interleukin-2-dependent and interleukin-2-independent pathways of regulation of thymocyte function by interleukin 6. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988;85:8643–8647.
- Garmann RD, Jacobs KA, Clark SC, Raulet DH: B-cell stimulating factor 2 (β2-interferon) functions as a second signal for interleukin-2 production by mature murine T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987;84:7629–7633.
- Colic M, Pejnovic N, Kataranovski M, Popovic L, Gasic S, Dujic A: Interferon gamma alters the phenotype of rat thymic epithelial cells in culture and increases interleukin-6 production. Dev Immunol 1992;2:151–160.
- Meilin A, Shoham J, Schreiber L, Sharabi Y: The role of thymocytes in regulating thymic epithelial cell growth and function. Scand J Immunol 1995;42:185–190.
- Cohen-Kaminsky S, Devergne O, Delattre R-M, Klingel-Schmitt I, Emilie D, Galanaud P, Berrih-Akinin S: Interleukin-6 overproduction by cultured thymic epithelial cells from patients with myasthenia gravis is potentially involved in thymic hyperplasia. Eur Cytokine Network 1993;4:121–132.
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.