Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.

Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.


Free Access

Mirror Syndrome: A Systematic Review of Fetal Associated Conditions, Maternal Presentation and Perinatal Outcome

Braun T.a · Brauer M.a · Fuchs I.a · Czernik C.b · Dudenhausen J.W.a · Henrich W.a · Sarioglu N.c

Author affiliations

Departments of aObstetrics, bNeonatology, and cPathology, Charité Campus Virchow, Berlin, Germany

Corresponding Author

Dr. Thorsten Braun, MD

Department of Obstetrics

Charité Medical University Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum

Augustenburger Platz 1, DE–13353 Berlin (Germany)

Tel. +49 30 450 664 309, Fax +49 30 450 564 901, E-Mail thorsten.braun@charite.de

Related Articles for ""

Fetal Diagn Ther 2010;27:191–203

Do you have an account?

Login Information

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.


Introduction: Mirror syndrome, also referred to as Ballantyne’s syndrome, is normally defined as the development of maternal edema in association with fetal hydrops. The incidence of mirror syndrome is low and few cases have been published. We describe a case report in association with fetal Ebstein anomaly and provide a systematic review on the fetal associated conditions, maternal presentation and perinatal outcome reported for mirror syndrome. Data Sources: A PubMed database search was done until December 2008 (English, French or German) without any restriction of publication date or journal, using the following key words: Ballantyne syndrome, Mirror syndrome, Triple edema, Pseudotoxemia, Maternal hydrops syndrome, Pregnancy toxemia, Acute second trimester gestosis, and Early onset preeclampsia. Reported cases were considered eligible when fetal associated conditions, maternal symptoms and fetal outcome were clearly described. Results: Among 151 publications a total of 56 reported cases satisfying all inclusion criteria were identified. Mirror syndrome was associated with rhesus isoimmunization (29%), twin-twin transfusion syndrome (18%), viral infection (16%) and fetal malformations, fetal or placental tumors (37.5%). Gestational age at diagnosis ranged from 22.5 to 27.8 weeks of gestation. Maternal key signs were edema (80–100%), hypertension (57–78%) and proteinuria (20–56%). The overall rate of intrauterine death was 56%. Severe maternal complications including pulmonary edema occurred in 21.4%. Maternal symptoms disappeared 4.8–13.5 days after delivery. Discussion: Mirror syndrome is associated with a substantial increase in fetal mortality and maternal morbidity.

© 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Review

Received: August 28, 2009
Accepted: February 02, 2010
Published online: March 27, 2010
Issue release date: July 2010

Number of Print Pages: 13
Number of Figures: 2
Number of Tables: 3

ISSN: 1015-3837 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9964 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/FDT

Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.