Food Allergy in Ghanaian Schoolchildren: Data on Sensitization and Reported Food AllergyObeng B.B.a, c · Amoah A.S.c · Larbi I.A.c · Yazdanbakhsh M.a · van Ree R.b · Boakye D.A.c · Hartgers F.C.a
aDepartment of Parasitology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, and bExperimental Immunology and Otorhinolaryngology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; cDepartement of Parasitology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Accra, Ghana
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
Article / Publication Details
Background: Epidemiological data on food allergy are scarce in African countries. We studied the prevalence of food sensitization in Ghanaian schoolchildren. Methods: Children (5–16 years; n = 1,714) from 9 Ghanaian schools were given parental consent to participate in the study. Adverse reactions and food consumption were determined by a questionnaire and atopy by skin prick testing (SPT) to peanut and 6 fruits. Subjects with positive SPTs were considered cases (n = 43) and matched with at least 1 control (n = 84), using age, sex, and school as matching criteria. Serum samples from case-control sets were analyzed for specific IgE (sIgE) to foods that elicited a positive SPT response in cases. Results: Overall, 11% of 1,407 children reported adverse reactions to foods, and 5% of 1,431 children showed a positive SPT reaction mostly directed against peanut and pineapple (both 2%). Although there was a positive association between adverse reactions and SPT responses to any food allergen in the urban children (adjusted OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.2–10.8), most of the reported adverse reactions were not in children showing an SPT reaction to the specific food item. sIgE sensitization was very variable for the different foods, ranging from 0 to 100% in cases, and from 0 to 25% among controls. High IgE levels for a food item significantly increased the risk of SPT positivity to any food item in the urban, but not in the rural, schoolchildren. Conclusions: Specific foods were identified to be allergenic in Ghana. We show a good association between SPT and sIgE in urban, but not in rural, schoolchildren. However, there was no clear association between reported adverse reactions to food and SPT or sIgE.
© 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel
- Howell WM, Turner SJ, Hourihane JO, Dean TP, Warner JO: HLA class II DRB1, DQB1 and DPB1 genotypic associations with peanut allergy: evidence from a family-based and case-control study. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28:156–162.
- Sicherer SH, Furlong TJ, Maes HH, Desnick RJ, Sampson HA, Gelb BD: Genetics of peanut allergy: a twin study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:53–56.
- Eggesbo M, Botten G, Halvorsen R, Magnus P: The prevalence of allergy to egg: a population-based study in young children. Allergy 2001;56:403–411.
- Wood RA: The natural history of food allergy. Pediatrics 2003;111:1631–1637.
Sampson HA: Food allergies; in Feldman M, et al., (eds): Sleisenger and Fordtran’s Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. Philadelphia, Saunders, 2006, vol 1, pp 427–439.
- Sicherer SH, Sampson HA: 9. Food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006;117:S470–S475.
- Venter C, Pereira B, Voigt K, et al: Prevalence and cumulative incidence of food hypersensitivity in the first 3 years of life. Allergy 2008;63:354–359.
- Bock SA: Prospective appraisal of complaints of adverse reactions to foods in children during the first 3 years of life. Pediatrics 1987;79:683–688.
- Sampson HA: Clinical practice: peanut allergy. N Engl J Med 2002;346:1294–1299.
- Grundy J, Matthews S, Bateman B, Dean T, Arshad SH: Rising prevalence of allergy to peanut in children: data from 2 sequential cohorts. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;110:784–789.
- Isolauri E, Huurre A, Salminen S, Impivaara O: The allergy epidemic extends beyond the past few decades. Clin Exp Allergy 2004;34:1007–1010.
- Rance F, Grandmottet X, Grandjean H: Prevalence and main characteristics of schoolchildren diagnosed with food allergies in France. Clin Exp Allergy 2005;35:167–172.
- Sandin A, Annus T, Bjorksten B, et al: Prevalence of self-reported food allergy and IgE antibodies to food allergens in Swedish and Estonian schoolchildren. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005;59:399–403.
- Woods RK, Stoney RM, Raven J, Walters EH, Abramson M, Thien FC: Reported adverse food reactions overestimate true food allergy in the community. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002;56:31–36.
- Roehr CC, Edenharter G, Reimann S, et al: Food allergy and non-allergic food hypersensitivity in children and adolescents. Clin Exp Allergy 2004;34:1534–1541.
- Pereira B, Venter C, Grundy J, Clayton CB, Arshad SH, Dean T: Prevalence of sensitization to food allergens, reported adverse reaction to foods, food avoidance, and food hypersensitivity among teenagers. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;116:884–892.
- Vieths S, Scheurer S, Ballmer-Weber B: Current understanding of cross-reactivity of food allergens and pollen. Ann NY Acad Sci 2002;964:47–68.
- Matricardi PM, Bockelbrink A, Beyer K, et al: Primary versus secondary immunoglobulin E sensitization to soy and wheat in the Multi-Centre Allergy Study cohort. Clin Exp Allergy 2008;38:493–500.
- Ostblom E, Lilja G, Ahlstedt S, van Hage M, Wickman M: Patterns of quantitative food-specific IgE-antibodies and reported food hypersensitivity in 4-year-old children. Allergy 2008;63:418–424.
- Benhamou AH, Zamora SA, Eigenmann PA: Correlation between specific immunoglobulin E levels and the severity of reactions in egg allergic patients. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2008;19:173–179.
- Muraro A, Dreborg S, Halken S, et al: Dietary prevention of allergic diseases in infants and small children. II. Evaluation of methods in allergy prevention studies and sensitization markers: definitions and diagnostic criteria of allergic diseases. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2004;15:196–205.
Kramer MS, Kakuma R: Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;CD003517.
- Greer FR, Sicherer SH, Burks AW: Effects of early nutritional interventions on the development of atopic disease in infants and children: the role of maternal dietary restriction, breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods, and hydrolyzed formulas. Pediatrics 2008;121:183–191.
- Cataldo F, Accomando S, Fragapane ML, Montaperto D: Are food intolerances and allergies increasing in immigrant children coming from developing countries? Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2006;17:364–369.
- Dias RP, Summerfield A, Khakoo GA: Food hypersensitivity among Caucasian and non-Caucasian children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2008;19:86–89.
- Dreborg S, Foucard T: Allergy to apple, carrot and potato in children with birch pollen allergy. Allergy 1983;38:167–172.
- Dreborg S, Frew A: Position paper: allergen standardisation and skin tests. Allergy 1993;48(S14):49–82.
- Katz N, Chaves A, Pellegrino J: A simple device for quantitative stool thick-smear technique in Schistosomiasis mansoni. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 1972;14:397–400.
- Peters PA, Mahmoud AA, Warren KS, Ouma JH, Siongok TK: Field studies of a rapid, accurate means of quantifying Schistosoma haematobium eggs in urine samples. Bull World Health Organ 1976;54:159–162.
- Penard-Morand C, Raherison C, Kopferschmitt C, et al: Prevalence of food allergy and its relationship to asthma and allergic rhinitis in schoolchildren. Allergy 2005;60:1165–1171.
- Venter C, Pereira B, Grundy J, Clayton CB, Arshad SH, Dean T: Prevalence of sensitization reported and objectively assessed food hypersensitivity amongst six-year-old children: a population-based study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2006;17:356–363.
- van den Biggelaar AH, Lopuhaa C, van RR, et al: The prevalence of parasite infestation and house dust mite sensitization in Gabonese schoolchildren. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2001;126:231–238.
- Castillo R, Delgado J, Quiralte J, Blanco C, Carrillo T: Food hypersensitivity among adult patients: epidemiological and clinical aspects. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 1996;24:93–97.
- Ebo DG, Bridts CH, Hagendorens MM, De Clerck LS, Stevens WJ: The prevalence and diagnostic value of specific IgE antibodies to inhalant, animal and plant food, and ficus allergens in patients with natural rubber latex allergy. Acta Clin Belg 2003;58:183–189.
- Asero R, Monsalve R, Barber D: Profilin sensitization detected in the office by skin prick test: a study of prevalence and clinical relevance of profilin as a plant food allergen. Clin Exp Allergy 2008;38:1033–1037.
- Reindl J, Rihs HP, Scheurer S, Wangorsch A, Haustein D, Vieths S: IgE reactivity to profilin in pollen-sensitized subjects with adverse reactions to banana and pineapple. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;128:105–114.
- de Bilderling G, Mathot M, Agustsson S, Tuerlinckx D, Jamart J, Bodart E: Early skin sensitization to aeroallergens. Clin Exp Allergy 2008;38:643–648.
- Van Gysel D, Govaere E, Verhamme K, Doli E, De Baets F: The influence of atopic status and potential risk factors for sensitization on histamine skin reactivity in unselected Belgian children. Pediatr Dermatol 2007;24:363–368.
- Hooper R, Calvert J, Thompson RL, Deetlefs ME, Burney P: Urban/rural differences in diet and atopy in South Africa. Allergy 2008;63:425–431.
- Heine RG, Tang ML: Dietary approaches to the prevention of food allergy. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2008;11:320–328.
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.