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Kidney Disease and Population Health

Free Access

Stratification for Confounding – Part 2: Direct and Indirect Standardization

Tripepi G.a · Jager K.J.b · Dekker F.W.b, c · Zoccali C.a

Author affiliations

aCNR-IBIM, Clinical Epidemiology and Physiopathology of Renal Diseases and Hypertension of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy; bERA-EDTA Registry, Department of Medical Informatics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, and cDepartment of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

Corresponding Author

Dr. Giovanni Tripepi, MSc

CNR-IBIM, Istituto di Biomedicina, Epidemiologia Clinica e Fisiopatologia delle Malattie Renali e dell’Ipertensione Arteriosa, c/o Euroline di Ascrizzi Vincenzo Via Vallone Petrara No. 55/57, IT–89124 Reggio Calabria (Italy)

Tel. +39 0965 397 010, Fax +39 0965 26879, E-Mail gtripepi@ibim.cnr.it

Related Articles for ""

Nephron Clin Pract 2010;116:c322–c325

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Abstract

Standardization is a method used to compare observed and expected rates of a given disease/outcome by removing the influence of factors that may confound the comparison. There are two major standardization methods: one is used when the ‘standard’ is the structure of a population (direct method) and the other when the ‘standard’ is a set of specific event rates (indirect method). The direct standardization is commonly used for large populations while the indirect one is applied to populations of relatively small dimensions.

© 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel


References

  1. Tripepi G, Jager KJ, Dekker FW, Zoccali C: Stratification for confounding. 1. The Mantel-Haenszel formula. Nephron Clin Pract 2010, in press.
  2. Jager KJ, Zoccali C, Macleod A, Dekker FW: Confounding: what it is and how to deal with it. Kidney Int 2008;73:256–260.
  3. Chiang CL: Standard error of the age adjusted death rate. Vital Stat Spec Rep 1961;47:275–285.
  4. de Jager DJ, Grootendorst DC, Jager KJ, van Dijk PC, Tomas LMJ, Ansell D, Collart F, Finne P, Heaf JG, De Meester J, Wetzels JFM, Rosendaal FR, Dekker FW: Cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality among patients initiating dialysis. JAMA 2009;302:1782–1789.
  5. Yang HY, Wang JD, Lo TC, Chen PC: Increased mortality risk for cancers of the kidney and other urinary organs among Chinese herbalists. J Epidemiol 2009;19:17–23.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Kidney Disease and Population Health

Published online: July 28, 2010
Issue release date: November 2010

Number of Print Pages: 1
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 5


eISSN: 1660-2110 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/NEC

References

  1. Tripepi G, Jager KJ, Dekker FW, Zoccali C: Stratification for confounding. 1. The Mantel-Haenszel formula. Nephron Clin Pract 2010, in press.
  2. Jager KJ, Zoccali C, Macleod A, Dekker FW: Confounding: what it is and how to deal with it. Kidney Int 2008;73:256–260.
  3. Chiang CL: Standard error of the age adjusted death rate. Vital Stat Spec Rep 1961;47:275–285.
  4. de Jager DJ, Grootendorst DC, Jager KJ, van Dijk PC, Tomas LMJ, Ansell D, Collart F, Finne P, Heaf JG, De Meester J, Wetzels JFM, Rosendaal FR, Dekker FW: Cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality among patients initiating dialysis. JAMA 2009;302:1782–1789.
  5. Yang HY, Wang JD, Lo TC, Chen PC: Increased mortality risk for cancers of the kidney and other urinary organs among Chinese herbalists. J Epidemiol 2009;19:17–23.

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