Skin Prick Test Extracts for Dog Allergy Diagnosis Show Considerable Variations Regarding the Content of Major and Minor Dog AllergensCurin M.a, b · Reininger R.a · Swoboda I.b · Focke M.b · Valenta R.b · Spitzauer S.a
aClinical Institute for Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics and bChristian Doppler Laboratory for Allergy Research, Division of Immunopathology, Department of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
Article / Publication Details
Background: Commercial skin prick test (SPT) extracts used for the diagnosis of dog allergy are prepared by extracting allergens from natural sources, e.g. dog hair and dander. Due to different starting material and extraction methods used, it is likely that extracts differ regarding their allergen contents. Methods: The total protein content and composition of dog SPT extracts from 5 European manufacturers were compared by silver-stained SDS-PAGE. Specific antibody probes were generated to detect major and minor allergens in each extract by immunoblotting. Additionally, sera of patients suffering from dog allergy were used to detect dog allergens in SPT extracts. Results: SPT extracts showed a 20-fold variation regarding the total protein content. The contents of the major dog allergen Can f 1 and of Can f 2 varied considerably between the extracts. In one of the extracts, neither Can f 1 nor Can f 2 could be detected by immunoblotting. The contents of the minor dog allergen Can f 3, albumin, also showed great variability. In one of the dog SPT extracts, the presence of human serum albumin (HSA) was detected with HSA-specific antibodies. Conclusion: The observed variability of commercial dog SPT extracts regarding their allergen contents likely has a negative influence on the accuracy of diagnosis of dog allergy.
© 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel
Custovic A, Simpson A, Woodcock A: Importance of indoor allergens in the induction of allergy and elicitation of allergic disease. Allergy 1998;53(suppl):115–120.
- Schou C: Defining allergens of mammalian origin. Clin Exp Allergy 1993;23:7–14.
- Spitzauer S: Allergy to mammalian proteins: at the borderline between foreign and self? Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1999;120:259–269.
- De Groot H, Goei KG, van Swieten P, Aalberse RC: Affinity purification of a major and a minor allergen from dog extract: serologic activity of affinity-purified Can f I and of Can f I-depleted extract. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1991;87:1056–1065.
- Schou C, Svendsen UG, Løwenstein H: Purification and characterization of the major dog allergen, Can f I. Clin Exp Allergy 1991;21:321–328.
- Konieczny A, Morgenstern JP, Bizinkauskas CB, et al: The major dog allergens, Can f 1 and Can f 2, are salivary lipocalin proteins: cloning and immunological characterization of the recombinant forms. Immunology 1997;92:577–586.
- Saarelainen S, Taivainen A, Rytkönen-Nissinen M, Auriola S, Immonen A, Mäntyjärvi R, Rautiainen J, Kinnunen T, Virtanen T: Assessment of recombinant dog allergens Can f 1 and Can f 2 for the diagnosis of dog allergy. Clin Exp Allergy 2004;34:1576–1582.
- Spitzauer S, Schweiger C, Anrather J, Ebner C, Scheiner O, Kraft D, Rumpold H: Characterisation of dog allergens by means of immunoblotting. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1993;100:60–67.
- Spitzauer S, Schweiger C, Sperr WR, Pandjaitan B, Valent P, Mühl S, Ebner C, Scheiner O, Kraft D, Rumpold H, et al: Molecular characterization of dog albumin as a cross-reactive allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994;93:614–627.
- Reininger R, Varga EM, Zach M, Balic N, Lindemeier AD, Swoboda I, Grönlund H, van Hage M, Rumpold H, Valenta R, Spitzauer S: Detection of an allergen in dog dander that cross-reacts with the major cat allergen, Fel d 1. Clin Exp Allergy 2007;37:116–124.
- Mattsson L, Lundgren T, Everberg H, Larsson H, Lidholm J: Prostatic kallikrein: a new major dog allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2009;123:362–368.
- Esch RE: Allergen source materials and quality control of allergenic extracts. Methods 1997;13:2–13.
- Heutelbeck AR, Schulz T, Bergmann KC, Hallier E: Environmental exposure to allergens of different dog breeds and relevance in allergological diagnostics. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2008;71:751–758.
- Nelson HS, Iklé D, Buchmeier A: Studies of allergen extract stability: the effects of dilution and mixing. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996; 98:382–388.
- Eichler I, Götz M, Jarisch R, Eichler G, Moss R: Reproducibility of skin prick testing with allergen extracts from different manufacturers. Allergy 1988;43:458–463.
- Focke M, Marth K, Flicker S, Valenta R: Heterogeneity of commercial Timothy grass pollen extracts. Clin Exp Allergy 2008;38:1400–1408.
- Focke M, Marth K, Valenta R: Molecular composition and biological activity of commercial birch pollen allergen extracts. Eur J Clin Invest 2009;39:429–436.
- Van der Veen MJ, Mulder M, Witteman AM, et al: False-positive skin prick test responses to commercially available dog dander extracts caused by contamination with house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;98:1028–1034.
- Larsen JN, Ford A, Gjesing B, Levy D, Petrunov B, Silvestri L, Løwenstein H: The collaborative study of the international standard of dog, Canis domesticus, hair/dander extract. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1988;82:318–330.
- Bradford MM: A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 1976;72:248–254.
- Kamata Y, Miyanomae A, Nakayama E, Miyanomae T, Tajima T, Hoshi H: Characterization of dog allergens, Can f 1 and Can f 2. 1. Preparation of their recombinant proteins and antibodies. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2007;142:291–300.
- Lämmli U: Cleavage of structural proteins during assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 1970;227:680–685.
- Towbin H, Staehelin T, Gordon J: Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1979;76:4350–4354.
- Valenta R, Duchene M, Ebner C, Valent P, Sillaber C, Deviller P, Ferreira F, Tejkl M, Edelmann H, Kraft D, et al: Profilins constitute a novel family of functional plant pan-allergens. J Exp Med 1992;175:377–385.
- Kamata Y, Miyanomae A, Nakayama E, Miyanomae T, Tajima T, Nishimura K, Tada T, Hoshi H: Characterization of dog allergens Can f 1 and Can f 2. 2. A comparison of Can f 1 with Can f 2 regarding their biochemical and immunological properties. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2007;142:301–308.
- Spitzauer S, Rumpold H, Ebner C, Schweiger C, Valenta R, Gabl F, Anrather J, Breitenbach M, Scheiner O, Kraft D: Allergen profiles of dog hair and dander, body fluids and tissues as defined by immunoblotting. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1991;94:346–348.
- Ramadour M, Guetat M, Guetat J, El Biaze M, Magnan A, Vervloet D: Dog factor differences in Can f 1 allergen production. Allergy 2005;60:1060–1064.
- Plunkett G: Stability of allergen extracts used in skin testing and immunotherapy. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2008;16:285–291.
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.