Supplementation of Flaxseed Oil Diminishes Skin Sensitivity and Improves Skin Barrier Function and ConditionNeukam K.a · De Spirt S.a · Stahl W.a · Bejot M.c · Maurette J.-M.c · Tronnier H.b · Heinrich U.b
aInstitute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, and bInstitute of Experimental Dermatology, University Witten-Herdecke, Witten, Germany; cLaboratoire Oenobiol, Paris, France
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
Article / Publication Details
Background: Skin sensitivity is a common problem in the Western population correlated with changes of skin properties like skin barrier function, hydration and skin physiology. Skin properties can be modulated by dietary fatty acids (FA), especially poly-unsaturated FA. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of daily supplementation with flaxseed oil and safflowerseed oil on healthy volunteers with sensitive skin. Methods: The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind 12-week intervention with 2 female treatment groups (n = 13). Plasma FA profile, skin sensitivity, skin hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin surface were evaluated on day 0, week 6 and week 12. Results: Supplementation with flaxseed oil led to significant decreases in sensitivity (after nicotinate irritation), TEWL, skin roughness and scaling, while smoothness and hydration were increased. Concomitantly, the ratio of n–6/n–3 FA in plasma decreased. Upon supplementation with safflowerseed oil, only a significant improvement in skin roughness and hydration was observed; however, the effects were less pronounced and determined at a later point in time than with flaxseed oil. The plasma n–6/n–3 FA ratio increased. Conclusion: The data provide evidence that daily intake of flaxseed oil modulates skin condition.
© 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel
- Farage MA, Maibach HI: Sensitive skin: closing in on a physiological cause. Contact Dermatitis 2010;62:137–149.
Rodrigues LM, Diego L: Sensitive skin syndrome in Portugal: a concise (social and demographic) characterization of the Portuguese reality. IFSCC Mag 2009;12:107–110.
Schmitt GJ: Empfindliche Haut: Versuch einer Definition; in Klaschka F (ed): Empfindliche Haut. Berlin, Diesbach, 1992, pp 150–154.
Roussaki-Schulze AV, Zafiriou E, Nikoulis D, Klimi E, Rallis E, Zintzaras E: Objective biophysical findings in patients with sensitive skin. Drugs Exp Clin Res 2005;31 (suppl):17–24.
- Primavera G, Berardesca E: Sensitive skin: mechanisms and diagnosis. Int J Cosmet Sci 2005;27:1–10.
- Primavera G, Berardesca E: Clinical and instrumental evaluation of a food supplement in improving skin hydration. Int J Cosmet Sci 2005;27:199–204.
Marriott M, Holmes J, Peters L, Cooper K, Rowson M, Basketter DA: The complex problem of sensitive skin. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2005;53:93–99.
- Boelsma E, van de Vijver LPL, Goldbohm RA, Klöpping-Ketelaars IAA, Hendriks HFJ, Roza L: Human skin condition and its associations with nutrient concentrations in serum and diet. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:348–355.
- Palombo P, Fabrizi G, Ruocco V, Ruocco E, Fluhr J, Roberts R, Morganti P: Beneficial long-term effects of combined oral/topical antioxidant treatment with the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin on human skin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2007;20:199–210.
- Heinrich U, Tronnier H, Stahl W, Béjot M, Maurette J: Antioxidant supplements improve parameters related to skin structure in humans. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2006;19:224–231.
- Stahl W, Heinrich U, Aust O, Tronnier H, Sies H: Lycopene-rich products and dietary photoprotection. Photochem Photobiol Sci 2006;5:238–242.
- Kris-Etherton PM, Taylor DS, Yu-Poth S, Huth P, Moriarty K, Fishell V, Hargrove RL, Zhao G, Etherton TD: Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:179S–88S.
- Maurette J: Flaxseed oil, a fish oil challenger? OCL 2008;15:257–261.
- Tronnier H, Wiebusch M, Heinrich U, Stute R: Surface evaluation of living skin. Adv Exp Med Biol 1999;455:507–516.
- Heinrich U, Koop U, Leneveu-Duchemin M, Osterrieder K, Bielfeldt S, Chkarnat C, Degwert J, Häntschel D, Jaspers S, Nissen H, Rohr M, Schneider G, Tronnier H: Multicentre comparison of skin hydration in terms of physical-, physiological- and product-dependent parameters by the capacitive method (Corneometer CM 825). Int J Cosmet Sci 2003;25:45–53.
Colipa (European Cosmetics Association): Guidelines for the evaluation of the efficacy of cosmetic products, rev. May 2008.
- Folch J, Lees M: Proteolipids, a new type of tissue lipoproteins: their isolation from brain. J Biol Chem 1951;191:807–817.
- Eder K, Reichlmayr-Lais AM, Kirchgessner M: Studies on the methanolysis of small amounts of purified phospholipids for gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters. J Chromatogr 1992;607:55–67.
- Heinrich U, Garbe B, Tronnier H: In vivo assessment of ectoin: a randomized, vehicle-controlled clinical trial. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2007;20:211–218.
- Berardesca E, Cespa M, Farinelli N, Rabbiosi G, Maibach H: In vivo transcutaneous penetration of nicotinates and sensitive skin. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1991;25:35–38.
- Fluhr JW, Darlenski R, Angelova-Fischer I, Tsankov N, Basketter D: Skin irritation and sensitization: mechanisms and new approaches for risk assessment. 1. Skin irritation. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2008;21:124–135.
- Fluhr JW, Feingold KR, Elias PM: Transepidermal water loss reflects permeability barrier status: validation in human and rodent in vivo and ex vivo models. Exp Dermatol 2006;15:483–492.
- Menon GK, Kligman AM: Barrier functions of human skin: a holistic view. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2009;22:178–189.
- Feingold KR: Thematic review series: skin lipids. The role of epidermal lipids in cutaneous permeability barrier homeostasis. J Lipid Res 2007;48:2531–2546.
- Proksch E, Brandner JM, Jensen J: The skin: an indispensable barrier. Exp Dermatol 2008;17:1063–1072.
- De Spirt S, Stahl W, Tronnier H, Sies H, Bejot M, Maurette J, Heinrich U: Intervention with flaxseed and borage oil supplements modulates skin condition in women. Br J Nutr 2009;101:440–445.
- Muggli R: Systemic evening primrose oil improves the biophysical skin parameters of healthy adults. Int J Cosmet Sci 2005;27:243–249.
- Brosche T, Platt D: Effect of borage oil consumption on fatty acid metabolism, transepidermal water loss and skin parameters in elderly people. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2000;30:139–150.
- Calder PC: Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: new twists in an old tale. Biochimie 2009;91:791–795.
- Jeon HY, Kim JK, Seo DB, Cho SY, Lee SJ: Beneficial effect of dietary epigallocatechin-3-gallate on skin via enhancement of antioxidant capacity in both blood and skin. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2010;23:283–289.
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.