Inhibition of Dental Erosion by Casein and Casein-Derived ProteinsWhite A.J.a · Gracia L.H.b · Barbour M.E.a
aSchool of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, and bGlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare R&D, Weybridge, UK
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
Article / Publication Details
The application of milk-derived proteins such as casein as anti-erosion agents in oral healthcare products is of current interest. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of 3 commercially available, milk-derived proteins as agents to inhibit enamel erosion. Aqueous solutions of 0.5% w/v casein, casein phosphopeptide (CPP) or glycomacropeptide (GMP) with and without 300 ppm fluoride (F, as NaF) were investigated with regard to enamel softening and tissue loss, in comparison with a deionised water (DIW) negative control and 300 ppm F positive control. Casein and F reduced enamel surface softening compared to DIW, but CPP and GMP did not (DIW: 58.2% reduction in hardness; F: 13.3%; casein: 21.8%; CPP: 50.8%; GMP: 62.4%). Similar results were obtained with solutions containing protein and F, and the effects were statistically indistinguishable from protein alone (casein + F: 19.1%; CPP + F: 48.2%; GMP + F: 66.1%). By contrast, all protein solutions and F significantly reduced tissue loss (p < 0.050; DIW: 25.8 µm tissue loss; F: 21.6 µm; casein: 20.3 µm; CPP: 20.5 µm; GMP: 20.0 µm). Solutions containing protein and F reduced erosion more than protein alone, but this difference was only significant from protein alone for casein (casein + F: 12.2 µm; CPP + F: 17.3 µm; GMP + F: 18.2 µm). Casein and casein-derived proteins may therefore have the potential to act as agents to reduce or prevent enamel erosion. Furthermore, the erosion-reducing efficacy is not reduced by F, and is in some cases enhanced.
© 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel
- Aimutis WR: Bioactive properties of milk proteins with particular focus on anticariogenesis. J Nutr 2004;134:989S–995S.
- Barbour ME, Finke M, Parker DM, Hughes JA, Allen GC, Addy M: The relationship between enamel softening and erosion caused by soft drinks at a range of temperatures. J Dent 2006;34:207–213.
- Barbour ME, Parker DM, Allen GC, Jandt KD: Human enamel dissolution in citric acid as a function of pH in the range 2.30 < pH < 6.30: a nanoindentation study. Eur J Oral Sci 2003a;111:258–262.
- Barbour ME, Parker DM, Jandt KD: Enamel dissolution as a function of solution degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite: a nanoindentation study. J Colloid Interface Sci 2003b;265:9–14.
- Barbour ME, Shellis RP, Parker DM, Allen GC, Addy M: Inhibition of hydroxyapatite dissolution by whole casein: the effects of pH, protein concentration, calcium, and ionic strength. Eur J Oral Sci 2008;116:1–6.
- Bavetta LA, McClure FJ: Protein factors and experimental rat caries. J Nutr 1957;63:107–117.
Coultate TP: Proteins, in Coultate TP (ed): Food. The Chemistry of Its Components. Cambridge, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002, pp 126–174.
- Devold TG, Rykke M, Isabey D, Sørensen ES, Christiensen B, Langsrud T, Svenning C, Borch-Iohnsen B, Karlsen J, Vegarud GE: In vitro studies of adsorption of milk proteins onto tooth enamel. Int Dairy J 2006;16:1013–1017.
- Ekstrand J, Oliveby A: Fluoride in the oral environment. Acta Odontol Scand 1999;57:330–333.
- Finke M, Hughes JA, Parker DM, Jandt KD: Mechanical properties of in situ demineralised human enamel measured by AFM nanoindentation. J Surf Sci 2001;491:456–467.
- FitzGerald RJ: Potential uses of caseinophosphopeptides. Int Dairy J 1998;8:451–457.
- Ganss C, Klimek J, Brune V, Schürman A: Effects of two fluoridation measures on erosion progression in human enamel and dentine in situ. Caries Res 2004;38:561–566.
Guggenheim B, Neeser JR, Golliard M, Schüpbach P: Salivary pellicle modified by milk components mediates caries protection. Caries Res 1994;28:182.
- Harper DS, Osborn JC, Hefferren JJ, Clayton R: Cariostatic evaluation of cheeses with diverse physical and compositional characteristics. Caries Res 1986;20:123–130.
- Hemingway CA, White AJ, Shellis RP, Addy M, Parker DM, Barbour ME: Enamel erosion in dietary acids: inhibition by food proteins in vitro. Caries Res 2010;44:525–530.
- Huq NL, Cross KJ, Reynolds EC: Molecular modelling of a multiphosphorylated sequence motif bound to hydroxyapatite surfaces. J Mol Model 2000;6:35–47.
- Jenkins GN, Ferguson DB: Milk and dental caries. Br Dent J 1966;120:472–477.
Johansson I: Milk and dairy products: possible effects on dental health. Scand J Nutr 2002;46:119–122.
Kitts DD: Calcium binding peptides; in Mine Y, Shahidi F (eds): Nutraceutical Proteins and Peptides in Health and Disease. Boca Raton, CRC, 2006, pp 11–27.
- Lennon AM, Pfeffer M, Buchalla W, Becker K, Lennon S, Attin T: Effect of a casein/calcium phosphate-containing tooth cream and fluoride on enamel erosion in vitro. Caries Res 2006;40:154–157.
- Malkosi M, Dashper SG, O’Brien-Simpson NM, Talbo GH, Macris M, Cross KJ, Reynolds EC: Kappacin, a novel antibacterial peptide from bovine milk. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2001;45:2309–2315.
- Navarro M, Alto LAM, Cruz RA, Prazeres J: Calcium fluoride uptake by human enamel after use of fluoridated mouthrinses. Braz Dent J 2001;12:178–182.
- Nejad AS, Kanekanian A, Tatham A: The inhibitory effect of glycomacropeptide on dental erosion. Dairy Sci Technol 2009;89:233–239.
- Panich M, Poolthong S: The effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and a cola soft drink on in vitro enamel hardness. J Am Dent Assoc 2009;140:455–460.
- Ramalingam L, Messer LB, Reynolds EC: Adding casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate to sports drinks to eliminate in vitro erosion. Paediatr Dent 2005;27:61–67.
- Ranjitkar S, Rodriguez JM, Kaidonis JA, Richards LC, Townsend GC, Bartlett DW: The effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on erosive enamel and dentine wear by toothbrush abrasion. J Dent 2009;37:250–254.
- Rao SK, Bhat GS, Aradhya S, Devi A, Bhat M: Study of the efficacy of toothpaste containing casein phosphopeptide in the prevention of dental caries: a randomized controlled trial in 12- to 15-year-old high caries risk children in Bangalore, India. Caries Res 2009;43:430–435.
- Reynolds EC: The prevention of sub-surface demineralization of bovine enamel and change in plaque composition by casein in an intra-oral model. J Dent Res 1987;66:1120–1127.
- Reynolds EC: Anticariogenic complexes of amorphous calcium phosphate stabilized by casein phosphopeptide: a review. Spec Care Dentist 1998;18:8–16.
- Reynolds EC: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate: the scientific evidence. Adv Dent Res 2009;21:25–29.
- Reynolds EC, Riley PF, Storey E: Phosphoprotein inhibition of hydroxyapatite dissolution. Calcif Tissue Int 1982;34:S52–S56.
Reynolds EC, Storey E: A review of the effect of milk on dental caries. Aust J Dairy Tech 1979:9:175–180.
- Reynolds EC, Wong A: Effect of adsorbed protein on hydroxyapatite zeta potential and Streptococcus mutans adherence. Infect Immun 1983;39:1285–1290.
- Rykke M, Smistad G, Rölla G, Karsen J: Micelle-like structures in human saliva. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 1995;4:33–44.
- Schüpbach P, Neeser JR, Golliard M, Rouvet M, Guggenheim B: Incorporation of caseinoglycomacropeptide and caseinophosphopeptide into the salivary pellicle inhibits adherence of mutans streptococci. J Dent Res 1996;75:1779–1788.
- Schweigert BS, Shaw JH, Sepplin M, Elvehjem CA: Dental caries in the cotton rat. VI. The effect of the amount of protein, fat and carbohydrate in the diet on the incidence and extent of carious lesions. J Nutr 1946;31:439.
- Setarehnejad A, Kenekanian A, Tatham A, Abedi AH: The protective effect of caseinomacropeptide against dental erosion using hydroxyapatite as a model system. Int Dairy J 2010;20:652–656.
- Shaw JH: Effects of dietary composition on tooth decay in the albino rat. J Nutr 1950;41:13–24.
Swaisgood HE: Characteristics of milk; in Fennema OR (ed): Food Chemistry. New York, Marcel Dekker, 1996.
- Vacca-Smith AM, Wuyckhuyse BCV, Tabak LA, Bowen WH: The effect of milk and casein proteins on the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite. Arch Oral Biol 1994;39:1063–1069.
- Wang L, Tang R, Bonstein T, Orme CA, Bush PJ, Nancollas GH: A new model for nanoscale enamel dissolution. J Phys Chem B 2005;109:999–1005.
- Weiss ME, Bibby BG: Effects of milk on enamel solubility. Arch Oral Biol 1966a;11:49–57.
- Weiss ME, Bibby BG: Some protein effects on enamel solubility. Arch Oral Biol 1966b;11:59–63.
- Wetton S, Hughes J, West N, Addy M: Exposure time of enamel and dentine to saliva for protection against erosion: a study in vitro. Caries Res 2005;40:213–217.
- Zahradnik RT, Moreno EC, Burke EJ: Effect of salivary pellicle on enamel subsurface demineralization in vitro. J Dent Res 1976;55:664–670.
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.