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Original Paper

Does Smoking Increase Risk for Caries? A Cross-Sectional Study in an Italian Military Academy

Campus G.a, b · Cagetti M.G.b · Senna A.b · Blasi G.c · Mascolo A.c · Demarchi P.c · Strohmenger L.b

Author affiliations

aDental Institute, University of Sassari, Sassari, bWHO Collaborating Centre of Milan for Epidemiology and Community Dentistry, University of Milan, Milan, and cDental Institute, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy

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Caries Res 2011;45:40–46

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: March 03, 2010
Accepted: November 16, 2010
Published online: January 13, 2011
Issue release date: April 2011

Number of Print Pages: 7
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 6

ISSN: 0008-6568 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-976X (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/CRE

Abstract

Background/Aims: Traditionally, tobacco is considered as part of the military culture. A cross-sectional survey was designed to clarify if smoking habit increases the caries risk in a sample of Italian adults attending a Military Academy. Methods: Clinical examinations including dental caries and presence of bleeding at probing were carried out following WHO criteria. Related socio-behavioural factors were collected. Four calibrated examiners observed 763 subjects (men = 722; 94.6% and women = 41; 5.4%). Results: One of the 763 subjects did not declare the smoking status and was excluded from the analysis. Hundred twenty-six (16.5%) subjects claimed to have never smoked, 200 (26.3%) were coded as light smokers and 436 (57.2%) as heavy tobacco users. Statistically significant linear trend across the educational level (p = 0.03), self-satisfaction with the appearance of teeth and gums (p = 0.04) and dental check-up in the past 6 months (p = 0.02) was found among the 3 subgroups. Almost the entire sample showed caries experience (84.1%). Mean DS ranged from 0.6 in the nonsmokers subgroup to 1.1 in the heavy smokers. Differences among means were statistically significant for DS, DMFS and Significant Caries Index (p = 0.01, 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). The zero-inflated regression model showed that caries severity was significantly associated with smoking habit (p = 0.02), dental check-up in the past 6 months (p = 0.01), self-satisfaction with the appearance of teeth and gums (p < 0.01) and healthy gums (p = 0.04). Conclusion: Heavy smokers attending a Military Academy showed a higher prevalence of caries, confirming a correlation between the disease and tobacco use.

© 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel


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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: March 03, 2010
Accepted: November 16, 2010
Published online: January 13, 2011
Issue release date: April 2011

Number of Print Pages: 7
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 6

ISSN: 0008-6568 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-976X (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/CRE


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