Original Research Article
Changes in Vascular Risk Factors from Midlife to Late Life and White Matter Lesions: A 20-Year Follow-Up StudyVuorinen M.e · Solomon A.a, e · Rovio S.a · Nieminen L.e · Kåreholt I.a · Tuomilehto J.b–d · Soininen H.e–g · Kivipelto M.a, e
aAging Research Center, NVS, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; bDepartment of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, National Public Health Institute, and cDepartment of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, dSouth Ostrobothnia Central Hospital, Seinäjoki, eDepartment of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, and fDepartment of Neurology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, gDepartment of Geriatrics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
Background/Aims: This study investigated the relation of midlife blood pressure, total cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), their changes over time, apolipoprotein E, and white matter lesions (WML). Methods: Participants of the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Incidence of Dementia study were derived from random, population-based samples previously surveyed in 1972, 1977, 1982 or 1987. In 1998, 1,449 (73%) individuals aged 65–79 years were re-examined (average follow-up 21 years). A subpopulation (n = 112) was scanned with a 1.5-tesla MRI scanner in 1998, and WML were assessed from fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images using a semi-quantitative visual rating scale. Results: Risk of late-life WML was related to midlife overweight (relative risk = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.70–2.89), obesity (2.94; 2.44–3.03), and hypertension (2.73; 1.81–3.08), even after adjustments for several confounding factors. Elevated BMI (>25) (2.26; 1.42–2.62) and hypertension (3.14; 1.83–3.40) from midlife to late life also increased the risk of WML. In addition, an association with WML was seen for decreasing blood pressure (hypertension at midlife but not at late life) (3.25; 2.46–3.41), even after controlling for antihypertensive treatment. Lipid-lowering drugs had a protective effect against WML (0.13; 0.02–0.59). Conclusions: These results indicate that early and sustained vascular risk factor control is associated with a lower likelihood of having more severe WML in late life.
© 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.