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Citrate Modulates Calcium Oxalate Crystal Growth by Face-Specific Interactions

Grohe B.a · O’Young J.a · Langdon A.a · Karttunen M.b · Goldberg H.A.a · Hunter G.K.a

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aSchool of Dentistry and bDepartment of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ont., Canada

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Cells Tissues Organs 2011;194:176–181

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: May 09, 2011
Issue release date: August 2011

Number of Print Pages: 6
Number of Figures: 5
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 1422-6405 (Print)
eISSN: 1422-6421 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/CTO

Abstract

Because of its ability to inhibit the growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, citrate plays an important role in preventing the formation of kidney stones. To determine the mechanism of inhibition, we studied the citrate-COM interaction using a combination of microscopic and simulation techniques. Using scanning confocal interference microscopy, we found that addition of citrate preferentially inhibits crystal growth in <100> and, to a lesser extent, <001> directions, suggesting that citrate adsorbs to the faces of COM in the order {100} > {121} > {010}. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the resulting crystals are plate shaped, with large {100} faces and rounded ends. Molecular-dynamics simulations predicted, however, that citrate interacts with the faces of COM in a different order, i.e. {100} > {010} > {121}. Our simulations showed that citrate molecules align with the rows of Ca2+ ions on the {010} face but do not form close contacts, presumably because of electrostatic repulsion by the carboxylate groups that project from the Ca2+-rich plane. We propose that this weak interaction is responsible for citrate’s limited inhibition of COM growth in <010> directions. Overall, these findings indicate that electrostatic interactions with the Ca2+-rich faces of COM crystals are responsible for the growth-modulating properties of citrate.

© 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel


References

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: May 09, 2011
Issue release date: August 2011

Number of Print Pages: 6
Number of Figures: 5
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 1422-6405 (Print)
eISSN: 1422-6421 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/CTO


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