Effects of a Supplementation of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with or without Fish Gelatin on Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Obese, Insulin-Resistant SubjectsRudkowska I.a · Ponton A.b · Jacques H.a, c · Lavigne C.a, d · Holub B.J.e · Marette A.a, d · Vohl M.-C.a, c, f
aInstitute of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods (INAF), Laval University, Quebec, Qué., bMcGill University and Génome Québec Innovation Centre, Montreal, Qué., cDepartment of Food Science and Nutrition, and dQuebec Heart and Lung Institute Research Centre, Laval University, Quebec, Qué., eDepartment of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont., and fLaboratory of Endocrinology and Genomics, Laval University Hospital Research Center, Quebec, Qué., Canada
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Aim: To investigate gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and n-3 PUFA plus fish gelatin (+FG) supplementation. Methods: A transcriptome comparison of 8-week supplementation with n-3 PUFA and n-3 PUFA+FG was carried out in PBMCs of 16 obese insulin-resistant subjects. Results: Erythrocyte n-3 PUFA concentration increased and plasma triglycerides decreased significantly without altering inflammatory parameters after both supplementations. n-3 PUFA supplementation changed the expression of 805 genes, whereas n-3 PUFA+FG supplementation altered the expression of 184 genes. Three genes were commonly changed: fatty acid desaturase 1, free fatty acid receptor 3, and ectodysplasin. Pathway analyses indicate changes in gene expression via the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α pathway after both supplementations. Further, the extent of modifications in the expression of genes implicated in the inflammatory pathways – the oxidative stress response mediated by nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, nuclear transcription factor ĸB, oxidative stress, and hypoxia-inducible factor signaling – was different after each supplementation. Conclusion: Although n-3 PUFA and n-3 PUFA+FG supplementations have a distinct impact on gene expression levels, the consequences on biochemical parameters and metabolic pathways were comparable after both supplementations.
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