Contribution of Gut Microbiota to Colonic and Extracolonic Cancer DevelopmentCompare D. · Nardone G.
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gastroenterology Unit, Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
It is estimated that 20% of malignancies worldwide can be attributed to infections, i.e. about 1.2 million cases per year. A typical example of the association between bacterial infection and gastrointestinal malignancies is Helicobacter pylori infection with both gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Bacteria are an important component of the human body. The human intestine contains >500 different types of microorganisms, the ‘gut microbiota’, that play important functions such as energetic metabolism, proliferation and survival of epithelial cells, and protection against pathogens. Chronic alteration of intestinal microbiota homeostasis, ‘dysbiosis’, could promote many diseases, including cancer. The mechanisms by which bacteria may induce carcinogenesis include chronic inflammation, immune evasion, and immune suppression. There are three effector pathways of T helper (Th) cell differentiation: Th1 responses promoted by procarcinogenic signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)1 and Stat4 signaling, Th2 responses promoted by Stat6 signaling, and Th17 responses promoted by Stat3 signaling. Interestingly, Th1 responses, driven by IL-12 and characterized by IFN-γ production, are typically anticarcinogenic, whereas Th17 responses are activated in various cancers. Furthermore, a T regulatory response, driven by IL-10 and TGF-β, counterbalances the proinflammatory effect of Th17 responses. Elevated numbers of T regulatory cells suppress the innate and adaptive immune responses, thereby contributing to tumor progression. The emerging relationship between gut microbiota and cancer has prompted new ways of thinking about cancer prevention and has led to the development of noninvasive diagnostic tests and innovative treatments, such as with probiotics. However, although in vitro and animal model studies suggest a protective anticancer effect of probiotics, the results of human epidemiological studies are controversial.
© 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.