Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.

Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Original Article

Free Access

Inverse Association between Fruit and Vegetable Intake and BMI even after Controlling for Demographic, Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Factors

Heo M.a · Kim R.S.a · Wylie-Rosett J.a · Allison D.B.b · Heymsfield S.B.c · Faith M.S.d

Author affiliations

a Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, b Departments of Biostatistics, Nutrition Sciences, Genetics, and Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, c Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, d Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA

Corresponding Author

Moonseong Heo, PhD, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Belfer 1312, Bronx, NY 10461, USA, Tel. +1 718-9206274, Fax -5156029, moonseong.heo@einstein.yu.edu

Related Articles for ""

Obes Facts 2011;4:449–455

Do you have an account?

Login Information

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.


Objective: To estimate fruit and vegetable (FV) intake levels of US adult population and evaluate the association between FV intake and BMI status after controlling for confounding demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. We also sought to identify moderating factors. Methods: We used 2007 Behavior Risk Factors Surveillance System (N > 400,000) data. FV intake was dichotomized as ≧5 servings (FV5+) versus <5 servings/ day. BMI status was categorized as normal, overweight, and obese. Identification of moderators was performed by testing interactions between BMI status and other variables using bivariate analyses followed by multiple logistic regression analysis incorporating complex survey sampling design features. Results: Only 24.6% of US adults consumed ≧5 servings per day and less than 4% consumed 9 or more servings. Overweight (% FV5+ = 23.9%) and obese (21.9%) groups consumed significantly less FV than the normal-weight (27.4%) group (p < 0.0001). This inverse association remained significant even after controlling for potential confounding factors. Multivariate analysis identified five significant moderators (p < 0.0001) after controlling for all evaluated variables: race, sex, smoking status, health coverage, and physical activity. Notably, physically inactive obese males tended to consume the least FV (% FV5+ = 14.7%). Conclusion: Current US population FV intake level is below recommended levels. The inverse association between FV intake and obesity was significant and was moderated by demographic, socioeconomic status, and lifestyle factors. These factors should be considered when developing policies and interventions to increase FV intake.

© 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Article

Published online: December 06, 2011
Issue release date: December 2011

ISSN: 1662-4025 (Print)
eISSN: 1662-4033 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/OFA

Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.