Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research
Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease Predict Higher Risk of Mortality in Patients with Primary Upper Gastrointestinal BleedingSood P.a · Kumar G.b · Nanchal R.b · Sakhuja A.d · Ahmad S.c · Ali M.c · Kumar N.c · Ross E.A.e
Divisions of aNephrology and bPulmonary and Critical Care, and cDepartment of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisc., dDepartment of Nephrology and Hypertension, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, and eDivision of Nephrology, Hypertension and Renal Transplantation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla., USA
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
Article / Publication Details
Background: The outcome of gastrointestinal bleeding in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is difficult to discern from the literature. Many publications are small, single-center series or are from an era prior to advanced interventional endoscopy, widespread use of proton pump inhibitors or treatment for Helicobacter pylori infections. In this study, we quantify the role of CKD and ESRD as independent predictors of mortality in patients admitted to the hospital with a principal diagnosis of primary upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Methods: We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample that contains data on approximately 8 million admissions in 1,000 hospitals chosen to approximate a 20% stratified sample of all US facilities. Patients discharged with the principal diagnosis of primary UGIB, CKD or ESRD were identified through the ninth revision of the International Classification of Diseases, clinical modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. The outcome variables included frequency and in-hospital mortality of UGIB in CKD and ESRD patients as compared to non-CKD patients and were analyzed using logistic regression modeling. Results: In 2007, out of a total of 398,213 admissions with a diagnosis of primary UGIB, 35,985 were in CKD, 14,983 in ESRD, and 347,245 in non-renal disease groups. The OR for primary UGIB hospitalization in CKD and ESRD was 1.30 (95% CI 1.17–1.46) and 1.84 (95% CI 1.61–2.09), respectively. The corresponding all-cause mortality OR was 1.47 (95% CI 1.21–1.78) and 3.02 (95% CI 2.23–4.1), respectively. Conclusion: Patients with CKD or ESRD admitted with primary UGIB have up to three times higher risk of all-cause in-hospital mortality, warranting heightened vigilance by their clinicians.
© 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.