Early-Onset Schizophrenia1Remschmidt H.a · Theisen F.b
aDepartment of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Philipps University, Marburg, and bDepartment of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Herz-Jesu-Krankenhaus, Fulda, Germany
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
Article / Publication Details
The available study findings on the course and outcome of schizophrenia beginning in childhood or adolescence can be summarized as follows. (1) Schizophrenic psychoses that arise before the age of 13 have a very poor prognosis. The disease usually continues to progress in adolescence and adulthood. It can be diagnosed with the same criteria that are used for adults. (2) Patients whose disease is of acute onset, with productive schizophrenic manifestations such as hallucinations and delusions (positive manifestations), have a better prognosis than those whose disease begins insidiously and takes an unfavorable course, with depressive states and continually worsening impairment of cognitive function. (3) The patient’s premorbid personality plays a major role. Patients who were described as socially active, intelligent, and integrated children and adolescents before they became ill have a better prognosis than those who were intellectually impaired, timid, introverted and uncommunicative before they became ill. (4) The prognosis seems to be better for patients who have no family history of schizophrenia, those whose families cooperate well, and those whose condition improves rapidly during inpatient treatment. (5) The few available studies on the course and outcome of schizophrenia beginning in childhood and early adolescence confirm that they are much worse than in adult-onset schizophrenia. (6) A 42-year longitudinal study of patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia revealed their suicide rate to be higher than that of patients with adult-onset schizophrenia. No further longitudinal studies are available to confirm this finding.
© 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel
- Werry JS, McClellan JM, Chard L: Childhood and adolescent schizophrenic, bipolar, and schizoaffective disorders: a clinical and outcome study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1991;30:457–465.
- Regier D, Narrow W, Rae D, Manderscheid R, Locke B, Goodwin F: The de facto US mental and addictive disorders service system. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1993;50:85–94.
- Häfner H, an der Heiden W: Epidemiology of schizophrenia. Can J Psychiatry 1997;42:139–151.
Häfner H: Die Rolle von Geschlecht und Gehirn bei Schizophrenie; in Lauterbacher S, Güntürkün O, Hausmann M (eds): Gehirn und Geschlecht. Neurowissenschaft des kleinen Unterschieds zwischen Mann und Frau. Heidelberg, Springer, 2007, pp 297–330.
Mehler-Wex C, Warnke A: Klinik und Verlauf schizophrener Erkrankungen mit Beginn im Kindes- und Jugendalter; in Remschmidt H (ed): Schizophrene Erkrankungen im Kindes- und Jugendalter: Klinik, Ätiologie, Therapie und Rehabilitation. Stuttgart, Schattauer, 2004, pp 41–50.
- Remschmidt H: Early-onset schizophrenia as a progressive-deteriorating developmental disorder: evidence from child psychiatry. J Neural Transm 2002;109:101–117.
Remschmidt H, Theisen F: Schizophrenie; in Remschmidt H, Schmidt M (eds): Manuale psychischer Störungen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. Berlin, Springer, 2011.
- Keller A, Castellanos FX, Vaituzis AC, Jeffries NO, Giedd JN, Rapoport JL: Progressive loss of cerebellar volume in childhood-onset schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160:128–133.
- Rapoport JL, Giedd J, Kumra S, Jacobsen L, Smith A, Lee P, Nelson J, Hamburger S: Childhood-onset schizophrenia. Progressive ventricular change during adolescence. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1997;54:897–903.
- Gogtay N, Giedd JN, Lusk L, Hayashi KM, Greenstein D, Vaituzis AC, Nugent TFI, Herman DH, Clasen LS, Toga AW, Rapoport JL, Thompson PM: Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2003;101:8174–8179.
- Rapoport JL, Gogtay N: Childhood onset schizophrenia: support for a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder. Int J Dev Neurosci 2011;29:251–258.
- Jacobsen LK, Rapoport JL: Research update: childhood-onset schizophrenia: implications of clinical and neurobiological research. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1998;39:101–113.
Remschmidt H, Martin M, Fleischhaker C, Schulz E: A 42-year follow-up study of childhood-onset schizophrenia. Unpubl. manuscript 2005.
- Remschmidt H, Schulz E, Martin M, Warnke A, Trott G: Childhood onset schizophrenia: history of the concept and recent studies. Schizophr Bull 1994;20:727–746.
- David CN, Greenstein D, Clasen L, Gochman P, Miller R, Tossell JW, Mattai AA, Gogtay N, Rapoport JL: Childhood onset schizophrenia: high rate of visual hallucinations. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2011;50:681–686.
- Gentile S: Clinical usefulness of second-generation antipsychotics in treating children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar or schizophrenic disorders. Paediatr Drugs 2011;13:291–302.
Remschmidt H, Martin M, Hennighausen K, Schulz E: Treatment and rehabilitation; in Remschmidt H (ed): Schizophrenia in Children and Adolescents. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2001, pp 192–267.
Martin M: Der Verlauf der Schizophrenie im Jugendalter unter Rehabilitationsbedingungen. Stuttgart, Enke, 1991.
- Silverstein ML, Mavrolefteros G, Close D: Premorbid adjustment and neuropsychological performance in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 2002;28:157–165.
- Asarnow JR, Tompson MC, Goldstein MJ: Childhood-onset schizophrenia: a followup study. Schizophr Bull 1994;20:599–617.
- Eggers C, Bunk D: The long-term course of childhood-onset schizophrenia: a 42-year follow-up. Schizophr Bull 1997;23:105–117.
Trott GE, Gold-Carl H, Badura F: Klinik, Verlauf und Therapie von schizophrenen Psychosen mit sehr frühem Krankheitsbeginn; in Naber D, Müller-Spahn F (eds): Leponex – Pharmakologie und Klinik eines atypischen Neuroleptikums. Berlin, Springer, 1999, pp 51–62.
- Remschmidt H, Martin M, Fleischhaker C, Theisen FM, Hennighausen K, Gutenbrunner C, Schulz E: Forty-two-years later: the outcome of childhood-onset schizophrenia. J Neural Transm 2007;114:505–512.
- Remschmidt H, Theisen F: Schizophrenia and related disorders in children and adolescents. J Neural Transm Suppl 2005;69:121–141.
Remschmidt H, Martin M, Schulz E, Gutenbrunner C, Fleischhaker C: The concept of positive and negative schizophrenia in child and adolescent psychiatry; in Maneros A, Andreasen N, Tsuang M (eds): Negative versus Positive Schizophrenia. Heidelberg, Springer, 1991, pp 219–242.
- Werry JS, McClellan JM, Andrews LK, Hamm M: Clinical features and outcome of child and adolescent schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 1994;20:619–630.
Fish B: Biological antecedents of psychosis in children; in Friedman D (ed): The Biology of Major Psychoses. New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 49–80.
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.