Transcriptional Regulation of RKIP Expression by Androgen in Prostate CellsZhang H.a · Wu J.b · Keller J.M.a · Yeung K.c · Keller E.T.a · Fu Z.b
aUniversity of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center and Department of Urology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI; bDepartment of Human and Molecular Genetics, VCU Institute of Molecular Medicine and VCU Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA; cDepartment of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH
Zheng Fu and Evan T. Keller
Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, VA 23298 (USA) and Department of Urology, University of Michigan Medical
School, 5304 CCC, 1500 E. Medical Center Dr. Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0940 (USA)
E-Mail email@example.com and E-Mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Do you have an account?
Background/Aims: Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) is a scaffolding molecule in the PEBP family that sequesters certain signaling molecules away from their pathways, thereby abrogating intracellular growth signals. RKIP has been assigned multiple functions and is associated with an increasing number of diseases through its involvement with signal transduction pathways. We previously demonstrated that RKIP is highly expressed in human normal prostate epithelial cells and plays a pivotal role during prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Whether RKIP is subject to endocrine regulation has not been reported. Methods: The effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on RKIP expression in normal prostate epithelial cells was determined by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. Report assay was performed to determine whether the regulation of RKIP by androgens is at the transcriptional level. The binding of androgen receptor (AR) to the RKIP promoter was determined by EMSA and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. To determine whether RKIP was regulated by androgen in vivo, we examined RKIP expression level in response to castration in 6-8 week old C57BL/6 male mice. Results: Here we report that DHT positively regulates the transcription of RKIP in the normal prostate epithelial cells. The anti-androgen bicalutamide blocked androgen-mediated regulation of RKIP, which indicates that this regulation is mediated through AR. Transfection of the cells with a RKIP promoter-driven luciferase reporter vector showed that DHT increased RKIP promoter activity in parallel with changes in expression. EMSA demonstrates that AR binds to a putative ARE in the RKIP promoter, which was further validated by ChIP assay. Importantly, these data are further supported by our in vivo experiment where castrated mice had less RKIP expression in their prostate glands than sham-operated mice. Conclusions: Collectively, the results establish RKIP as a novel androgen target gene. Androgens induce RKIP expression through AR-mediated transcriptional modulation of the RKIP promoter in the prostate. This is the first demonstration of endocrine regulation of the metastasis suppressor gene RKIP.
© 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.