Limits of Human Endurance
76th Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop, Oxford, August 2012Editor(s): van Loon L.J.C. (Maastricht)
Meeusen R. (Brussels)
Physiological and Performance Adaptations to High-Intensity Interval TrainingGibala M.J.a · Jones A.M.b
aDepartment of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; bDepartment of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) refers to exercise that is characterized by relatively short bursts of vigorous activity, interspersed by periods of rest or low-intensity exercise for recovery. In untrained and recreationally active individuals, short-term HIIT is a potent stimulus to induce physiological remodeling similar to traditional endurance training despite a markedly lower total exercise volume and training time commitment. As little as six sessions of ‘all-out' HIIT over 14 days, totaling ∼15 min of intense cycle exercise within total training time commitment of ∼2.5 h, is sufficient to enhance exercise capacity and improve skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. From an athletic standpoint, HIIT is also an effective strategy to improve performance when supplemented into the already high training volumes of well-trained endurance athletes, although the underlying mechanisms are likely different compared to less trained subjects. Most studies in this regard have examined the effect of replacing a portion (typically ∼15-25%) of base/normal training with HIIT (usually 2-3 sessions per week for 4-8 weeks). It has been proposed that a polarized approach to training, in which ∼75% of total training volume be performed at low intensities, with 10-15% performed at very high intensities may be the optimal training intensity distribution for elite athletes who compete in intense endurance events.
© 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel
- Burgomaster KA, Howarth KR, Phillips SM, et al: Similar metabolic adaptations during exercise after low volume sprint interval and traditional endurance training in humans. J Physiol 2008;586:151-160.
- Gibala MJ, Little JP, van Essen M, et al: Short-term sprint interval versus traditional endurance training: similar initial adaptations in human skeletal muscle and exercise performance. J Physiol 2006;575:901-911.
- Gibala MJ, Little JP, Macdonald MJ, Hawley JA: Physiological adaptations to low-volume, high-intensity interval training in health and disease. J Physiol 2012;590:1077-1084.
- Stutts WC: Physical activity determinants in adults. Perceived benefits, barriers, and self efficacy. AAOHN J 2002;50:499-507.
- Hawley JA, Myburgh KH, Noakes TD, Dennis SC: Training techniques to improve fatigue resistance and enhance endurance performance. J Sports Sci 1997;15:25-33.
- Iaia FM, Bangsbo J: Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2010;20(suppl 2):11-23.
- Kubukeli ZN, Noakes TD, Dennis SC: Training techniques to improve endurance exercise performances. Sports Med 2002;32:489-509.
- Laursen PB, Jenkins DG: The scientific basis for high-intensity interval training: optimising training programmes and maximising performance in highly trained endurance athletes. Sports Med 2002;32:53-73.
- Laursen PB: Training for intense exercise performance: high-intensity or high-volume training? Scand J Med Sci Sports 2010;20(suppl 2):1-10.
- Bar-Or O: The Wingate anaerobic test. An update on methodology, reliability and validity. Sports Med 1987;4:381-394.
- Burgomaster KA, Hughes SC, Heigenhauser GJ, et al: Six sessions of sprint interval training increases muscle oxidative potential and cycle endurance capacity in humans. J Appl Physiol 2005;98:1985-1990.
- Burgomaster KA, Heigenhauser GJ, Gibala MJ: Effect of short-term sprint interval training on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate metabolism during exercise and time-trial performance. J Appl Physiol 2006;100:2041-2047.
- Rakobowchuk M, Tanguay S, Burgomaster KA, et al: Sprint interval and traditional endurance training induce similar improvements in peripheral arterial stiffness and flow-mediated dilation in healthy humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2008;295:R236-R242.
- Bailey SJ, Wilkerson DP, Dimenna FJ, Jones AM: Influence of repeated sprint training on pulmonary O2 uptake and muscle deoxygenation kinetics in humans. J Appl Physiol 2009;106:1875-1887.
- McKay BR, Paterson DH, Kowalchuk JM: Effect of short-term high-intensity interval training vs. continuous training on O2 uptake kinetics, muscle deoxygenation, and exercise performance. J Appl Physiol 2009;107:128-138.
- Jones AM, Grassi B, Christensen PM, et al: Slow component of VO2 kinetics: mechanistic bases and practical applications. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011;43:2046-2062.
- Little JP, Safdar A, Wilkin GP, et al: A practical model of low-volume high-intensity interval training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle: potential mechanisms. J Physiol 2010;588:1011-1022.
- Little JP, Gillen JB, Percival ME, et al: Low-volume high-intensity interval training reduces hyperglycemia and increases muscle mitochondrial capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Appl Physiol 2011;111:1554-1560.
- Gunnarsson TP, Bangsbo J: The 10-20-30 training concept improves performance and health profile in moderately trained runners. J Appl Physiol 2012;113:16-24.
- Coyle EF: Integration of the physiological factors determining endurance performance ability. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 1995;23:25-63.
- Midgley AW, McNaughton LR, Jones AM: Training to enhance the physiological determinants of long-distance running performance: can valid recommendations be given to runners and coaches based on current scientific knowledge? Sports Med 2007;37:857-880.
- Acevedo EO, Goldfarb AH: Increased training intensity effects on plasma lactate, ventilatory threshold, and endurance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1989;21:563-568.
- Bangsbo J, Gunnarsson TP, Wendell J, et al: Reduced volume and increased training intensity elevate muscle Na+-K+ pump alpha2-subunit expression as well as short- and long-term work capacity in humans. J Appl Physiol 2009;107:1771-1780.
- Smith TP, Coombes JS, Geraghty DP: Optimising high-intensity treadmill training using the running speed at maximal O2 uptake and the time for which this can be maintained. Eur J Appl Physiol 2003;89:337-343.
- Lindsay FH, Hawley JA, Myburgh KH, et al: Improved athletic performance in highly trained cyclists after interval training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996;28:1427-1434.
- Stepto NK, Hawley JA, Dennis SC, Hopkins WG: Effects of different interval-training programs on cycling time-trial performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:736-741.
- Westgarth-Taylor C, Hawley JA, Rickard S, et al: Metabolic and performance adaptations to interval training in endurance-trained cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1997;75:298-304.
- Weston AR, Myburgh KH, Lindsay FH, et al: Skeletal muscle buffering capacity and endurance performance after high-intensity interval training by well-trained cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1997;75:7-13.
- Laursen PB, Shing CM, Peake JM, et al: Interval training program optimization in highly trained endurance cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002;34:1801-1807.
Jones AM: The physiology of the world record holder for the women's marathon. Int J Sports Sci Coach 2006;1:101-116.
- Roels B, Millet GP, Marcoux CJ, et al: Effects of hypoxic interval training on cycling performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005;37:138-146.
- Edge J, Bishop D, Goodman C: Effects of chronic NaHCO3 ingestion during interval training on changes to muscle buffer capacity, metabolism, and short-term endurance performance. J Appl Physiol 2006;101:918-925.
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.