The Hippocampus in Neurological Disorders
Stress, Memory, and the HippocampusWingenfeld K.a · Wolf O.T.b
aDepartment of Psychiatry, Charité University Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, and bCognitive Psychology, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
Stress hormones, i.e. cortisol in human and cortisone in rodents, influence a wide range of cognitive functions, including hippocampus-based declarative memory performance. Cortisol enhances memory consolidation, but impairs memory retrieval. In this context glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and hippocampal integrity play an important role. This review integrates findings on the relationships between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, one of the main coordinators of the stress response, hippocampus, and memory. Findings obtained in healthy participants will be compared with selected mental disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and borderline personality disorder (BPD). These disorders are characterized by alterations of the HPA axis and hippocampal dysfunctions. Interestingly, the acute effects of stress hormones on memory in psychiatric patients are different from those found in healthy humans. While cortisol administration has failed to affect memory retrieval in patients with MDD, patients with PTSD and BPD have been found to show enhanced rather than impaired memory retrieval after hydrocortisone. This indicates an altered sensitivity to stress hormones in these mental disorders.
© 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
- de Kloet ER, Joels M, Holsboer F: Stress and the brain: from adaptation to disease. Nat Rev Neurosci 2005;6:463-475.
- Joels M, et al: The coming out of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor. Trends Neurosci 2008;31:1-7.
- Roozendaal B, et al: Membrane-associated glucocorticoid activity is necessary for modulation of long-term memory via chromatin modification. J Neurosci 2010;30:5037-5046.
- Wolf OT: Stress and memory in humans: twelve years of progress? Brain Res 2009;1293:142-154.
- Dedovic K, D'Aguiar C, Pruessner JC: What stress does to your brain: a review of neuroimaging studies. Can J Psychiatry 2009;54:6-15.
- Oei NY, et al: Glucocorticoids decrease hippocampal and prefrontal activation during declarative memory retrieval in young men. Brain Imaging Behav 2007;1:31-41.
- Joels M, Fernandez G, Roozendaal B: Stress and emotional memory: a matter of timing. Trends Cogn Sci 2011;15:280-288.
- Henckens MJ, et al: Dynamically changing effects of corticosteroids on human hippocampal and prefrontal processing. Hum Brain Mapp 2012;33:2885-2897.
- Weerda R, et al: Effects of acute psychosocial stress on working memory related brain activity in men. Hum Brain Mapp 2010;31:1418-1429.
- Schwabe L, Wolf OT: Stress and multiple memory systems: from ‘thinking' to ‘doing'. Trends Cogn Sci 2013;17:60-68.
- Chamberlain SR, Sahakian BJ: The neuropsychology of mood disorders. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2006;8:458-463.
- Heim C, Binder EB: Current research trends in early life stress and depression: review of human studies on sensitive periods, gene-environment interactions, and epigenetics. Exp Neurol 2012;233:102-111.
- Parker KJ, Schatzberg AF, Lyons DM: Neuroendocrine aspects of hypercortisolism in major depression. Horm Behav 2003;43:60-66.
- Ising M, et al: The combined dexamethasone/CRH test as a potential surrogate marker in depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2005;29:1085-1093.
- McGowan PO, et al: Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse. Nat Neurosci 2009;12:342-348.
- Bremner JD, et al: Deficits in hippocampal and anterior cingulate functioning during verbal declarative memory encoding in midlife major depression. Am J Psychiatry 2004;161:637-645.
Schlosser N, Wolf OT, Wingenfeld K: Cognitive correlates of HPA axis alterations and their relevance for therapeutic interventions in major depressive disorder. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2011;6:109-126.
- Schlosser N, et al: Effects of acute cortisol administration on autobiographical memory in patients with major depression and healthy controls. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2010;35:316-320.
- Terfehr K, et al: Effects of acute hydrocortisone administration on declarative memory in patients with major depressive disorder: a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study. J Clin Psychiatry 2011;72:1644-1650.
- Wingenfeld K, Wolf OT: HPA axis alterations in mental disorders: impact on memory and its relevance for therapeutic interventions. CNS Neurosci Ther 2011;17:714-722.
- Yehuda R: Status of glucocorticoid alterations in post-traumatic stress disorder. Ann NY Acad Sci 2009;1179:56-69.
- Heim C, Nemeroff CB: Neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder. CNS Spectr 2009;14(1 suppl): 13-24.
- Karl A, et al: A meta-analysis of structural brain abnormalities in PTSD. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2006;30:1004-1031.
- Wingenfeld K, et al: Cortisol has enhancing, rather than impairing effects on memory retrieval in PTSD. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2012;37:1048-1056.
- Yehuda R, et al: Hydrocortisone responsiveness in Gulf War veterans with PTSD: effects on ACTH, declarative memory hippocampal [(18)F]FDG uptake on PET. Psychiatry Res 2010;184:117-127.
- Champagne DL, et al: Maternal care and hippocampal plasticity: evidence for experience-dependent structural plasticity, altered synaptic functioning, and differential responsiveness to glucocorticoids and stress. J Neurosci 2008;28:6037-6045.
- Aerni A, et al: Low-dose cortisol for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2004;161:1488-1490.
- Schelling G, et al: Efficacy of hydrocortisone in preventing posttraumatic stress disorder following critical illness and major surgery. Ann NY Acad Sci 2006;1071:46-53.
- Wingenfeld K, et al: Borderline personality disorder: hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis and findings from neuroimaging studies. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2010;35:154-170.
- Rinne T, et al: Hyperresponsiveness of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to combined dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge in female borderline personality disorder subjects with a history of sustained childhood abuse. Biol Psychiatry 2002;52:1102-1112.
- Wingenfeld K, et al: Effects of cortisol on memory in women with borderline personality disorder: role of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression. Psychol Med 2013;43:495-505.
- de Quervain DJ, et al: Glucocorticoids and the regulation of memory in health and disease. Front Neuroendocrinol 2009;30:358-370.
- Schüle C: Neuroendocrinological mechanisms of actions of antidepressant drugs. J Neuroendocrinol 2007;19:213-226.
- Yang TT, et al: The effect of psychotherapy added to pharmacotherapy on cortisol responses in outpatients with major depressive disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis 2009;197:401-406.
- Nemeroff CB, et al: Differential responses to psychotherapy versus pharmacotherapy in patients with chronic forms of major depression and childhood trauma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003;100:14293-14296.
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.