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Original Paper

Sperm Whales and Killer Whales with the Largest Brains of All Toothed Whales Show Extreme Differences in Cerebellum

Ridgway S.H. · Hanson A.C.

Author affiliations

National Marine Mammal Foundation, San Diego, Calif., USA

Related Articles for ""

Brain Behav Evol 2014;83:266-274

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: August 22, 2013
Accepted: February 11, 2014
Published online: May 21, 2014
Issue release date: July 2014

Number of Print Pages: 9
Number of Figures: 5
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 0006-8977 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9743 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/BBE

Abstract

Among cetaceans, killer whales and sperm whales have the widest distribution in the world's oceans. Both species use echolocation, are long-lived, and have the longest periods of gestation among whales. Sperm whales dive much deeper and much longer than killer whales. It has long been thought that sperm whales have the largest brains of all living things, but our brain mass evidence, from published sources and our own specimens, shows that big males of these two species share this distinction. Despite this, we also find that cerebellum size is very different between killer whales and sperm whales. The sperm whale cerebellum is only about 7% of the total brain mass, while the killer whale cerebellum is almost 14%. These results are significant because they contradict claims that the cerebellum scales proportionally with the rest of the brain in all mammals. They also correct the generalization that all cetaceans have enlarged cerebella. We suggest possible reasons for the existence of such a large cerebellar size difference between these two species. Cerebellar function is not fully understood, and comparing the abilities of animals with differently sized cerebella can help uncover functional roles of the cerebellum in humans and animals. Here we show that the large cerebellar difference likely relates to evolutionary history, diving, sensory capability, and ecology.

© 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: August 22, 2013
Accepted: February 11, 2014
Published online: May 21, 2014
Issue release date: July 2014

Number of Print Pages: 9
Number of Figures: 5
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 0006-8977 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9743 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/BBE


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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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