Stimulation of the Peripheral Nervous System
The Neuromodulation FrontierEditor(s): Slavin K.V. (Chicago, Ill.)
Sacral Neuromodulation for Genitourinary ProblemsBanakhar M.a · Hassouna M.b
aFaculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; bDepartment of Urology, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., Canada
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Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) is a minimally invasive therapeutic option for many voiding dysfunction conditions. It is approved by the US FDA for refractory overactive bladder with and without incontinence and nonobstructive retention. Since SNM has shown a favorable response for these approved indications, other therapeutic applications have been proposed for various conditions such as painful bladder syndrome, chronic pelvic pain and neurological voiding dysfunction in both adult and pediatric age groups. SNM therapy with the most commonly used dedicated SNM device (InterStim) involves insertion of electrode(s) in the third and/or fourth sacral foramen next to the nerve root. The electrode is then connected to a battery-operated pulse generator. All patients need to have a test trial period before definitive device insertion. Here we discuss SNM therapy in functional urinary disorders and the technique of device insertion with the potential pitfalls.
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