Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

ENETS Consensus Guidelines

ENETS Consensus Guidelines Update for Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of the Jejunum and Ileum

Niederle B.a · Pape U.-F.b · Costa F.c · Gross D.d · Kelestimur F.e · Knigge U.f · Öberg K.g · Pavel M.b · Perren A.h · Toumpanakis C.i · O''Connor J.j · O''Toole D.k · Krenning E.l · Reed N.m · Kianmanesh R.n · all other Vienna Consensus Conference participants

Author affiliations

aDepartment of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; bDepartment of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; cCentro de Oncologia, Hospital Sírio Libanês, São Paulo, Brazil; dDepartment of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hadassah University Hospital, Mevasseret Tsion, Israel; eDepartment of Endocrinology, Erciyes University Medical School, Kayseri, Turkey; fNeuroendocrine Tumor Center of Excellence, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; gDepartment of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology Unit, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden; hInstitute of Pathology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; iNeuroendocrine Tumour Unit, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK; jDepartment of Clinical Oncology, Institute Alexander Fleming, Buenos Aires, Argentina; kNational NET Centre, St. Vincent's University and Department of Clinical Medicine, St. James Hospital and Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland; lDepartment of Internal Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; mBeatson Oncology Centre, Gartnavel General Hospital, Glasgow, UK; nDepartment of Surgery, CHU Robert Debré, Reims, France

Related Articles for ""

Neuroendocrinology 2016;103:125-138

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Login Information





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

CHF 38.00 *
EUR 35.00 *
USD 39.00 *

Select

KAB

Buy a Karger Article Bundle (KAB) and profit from a discount!

If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in.


Save over 20% compared to the individual article price.
Learn more

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restrictions apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00


Select

Subscribe

  • Access to all articles of the subscribed year(s) guaranteed for 5 years
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select

* The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules.

Article / Publication Details

Published online: January 12, 2016
Issue release date: April 2016

Number of Print Pages: 14
Number of Figures: 2
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 0028-3835 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0194 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/NEN


First-Page Preview
Abstract of ENETS Consensus Guidelines

References

  1. Pape UF, Perren A, Niederle B, Gross D, Gress T, Costa F, Arnold R, Denecke T, Plockinger U, Salazar R, Grossman A: ENETS Consensus Guidelines for the management of patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms from the jejuno-ileum and the appendix including goblet cell carcinomas. Neuroendocrinology 2012;95:135-156.
  2. Niederle MB, Hackl M, Kaserer K, Niederle B: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: the current incidence and staging based on the WHO and European Neuroendocrine Tumour Society classification: an analysis based on prospectively collected parameters. Endocr Relat Cancer 2010;17:909-918.
  3. Rindi G, Kloppel G, Couvelard A, Komminoth P, Korner M, Lopes JM, McNicol AM, Nilsson O, Perren A, Scarpa A, Scoazec JY, Wiedenmann B: TNM staging of midgut and hindgut (neuro) endocrine tumors: a consensus proposal including a grading system. Virchows Arch 2007;451:757-762.
  4. Modlin IM, Oberg K, Chung DC, Jensen RT, de Herder WW, Thakker RV, Caplin M, Delle Fave G, Kaltsas GA, Krenning EP, Moss SF, Nilsson O, Rindi G, Salazar R, Ruszniewski P, Sundin A: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. Lancet Oncol 2008;9:61-72.
  5. Scherubl H, Streller B, Stabenow R, Herbst H, Hopfner M, Schwertner C, Steinberg J, Eick J, Ring W, Tiwari K, Zappe SM: Clinically detected gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are on the rise: epidemiological changes in Germany. World J Gastroenterol 2013;19:9012-9019.
  6. Yao JC, Hassan M, Phan A, Dagohoy C, Leary C, Mares JE, Abdalla EK, Fleming JB, Vauthey JN, Rashid A, Evans DB: One hundred years after ‘carcinoid': epidemiology of and prognostic factors for neuroendocrine tumors in 35,825 cases in the United States. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:3063-3072.
  7. Niederle MB, Niederle B: Diagnosis and treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: current data on a prospectively collected, retrospectively analyzed clinical multicenter investigation. Oncologist 2011;16:602-613.
  8. Eriksson B, Kloppel G, Krenning E, Ahlman H, Plockinger U, Wiedenmann B, Arnold R, Auernhammer C, Korner M, Rindi G, Wildi S: Consensus guidelines for the management of patients with digestive neuroendocrine tumors - well-differentiated jejunal-ileal tumor/ carcinoma. Neuroendocrinology 2008;87:8-19.
  9. Plockinger U, Rindi G, Arnold R, Eriksson B, Krenning EP, de Herder WW, Goede A, Caplin M, Oberg K, Reubi JC, Nilsson O, Delle Fave G, Ruszniewski P, Ahlman H, Wiedenmann B: Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumours. A consensus statement on behalf of the European Neuroendocrine Tumour Society (ENETS). Neuroendocrinology 2004;80:394-424.
  10. Oberndorfer S: Karzinoide Tumoren des Dünndarms. Frankf Z Pathol 1907;1:426-432.
  11. Ellis L, Shale MJ, Coleman MP: Carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract: trends in incidence in England since 1971. Am J Gastroenterol 2010;105:2563-2569.
  12. Ito T, Sasano H, Tanaka M, Osamura RY, Sasaki I, Kimura W, Takano K, Obara T, Ishibashi M, Nakao K, Doi R, Shimatsu A, Nishida T, Komoto I, Hirata Y, Nakamura K, Igarashi H, Jensen RT, Wiedenmann B, Imamura M: Epidemiological study of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in Japan. J Gastroenterol 2010;45:234-243.
  13. Hauso O, Gustafsson BI, Kidd M, Waldum HL, Drozdov I, Chan AK, Modlin IM: Neuroendocrine tumor epidemiology: contrasting Norway and North America. Cancer 2008;113:2655-2664.
  14. Landerholm K, Falkmer S, Jarhult J: Epidemiology of small bowel carcinoids in a defined population. World J Surg 2010;34:1500-1505.
  15. Garcia-Carbonero R, Capdevila J, Crespo-Herrero G, et al: Incidence, patterns of care and prognostic factors for outcome of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs): results from the National Cancer Registry of Spain (RGETNE). Ann Oncol 2010;21:1794-1803.
  16. Lepage C, Bouvier AM, Manfredi S, Dancourt V, Faivre J: Incidence and management of primary malignant small bowel cancers: a well-defined French population study. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:2826-2832.
  17. Ploeckinger U, Kloeppel G, Wiedenmann B, Lohmann R: The German NET-registry: an audit on the diagnosis and therapy of neuroendocrine tumors. Neuroendocrinology 2009;90:349-363.
  18. Bergestuen DS, Aabakken L, Holm K, Vatn M, Thiis-Evensen E: Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors: prognostic factors and survival. Scand J Gastroenterol 2009;44:1084-1091.
  19. Berge T, Linell F: Carcinoid tumours. Frequency in a defined population during a 12-year period. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand A 1976;84:322-330.
  20. Klimstra DS, Arnold R, Capella C, et al: WHO Classification of Tumours of the Digestive System. Lyon, IACR, 2010.
  21. Jann H, Roll S, Couvelard A, Hentic O, Pavel M, Muller-Nordhorn J, Koch M, Rocken C, Rindi G, Ruszniewski P, Wiedenmann B, Pape UF: Neuroendocrine tumors of midgut and hindgut origin: tumor-node-metastasis classification determines clinical outcome. Cancer 2011;117:3332-3341.
  22. Boudreaux JP, Klimstra DS, Hassan MM, Woltering EA, Jensen RT, Goldsmith SJ, Nutting C, Bushnell DL, Caplin ME, Yao JC: The NANETS consensus guideline for the diagnosis and management of neuroendocrine tumors: well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the Jejunum, Ileum, Appendix, and Cecum. Pancreas 2010;39:753-766.
  23. Quaedvlieg PF, Visser O, Lamers CB, Janssen-Heijen ML, Taal BG: Epidemiology and survival in patients with carcinoid disease in The Netherlands. An epidemiological study with 2391 patients. Ann Oncol 2001;12:1295-1300.
  24. Perez EA, Koniaris LG, Snell SE, Gutierrez JC, Sumner WE 3rd, Lee DJ, Hodgson NC, Livingstone AS, Franceschi D: 7,201 carcinoids: increasing incidence overall and disproportionate mortality in the elderly. World J Surg 2007;31:1022-1030.
  25. Strosberg J, Gardner N, Kvols L: Survival and prognostic factor analysis of 146 metastatic neuroendocrine tumors of the mid-gut. Neuroendocrinology 2009;89:471-476.
  26. Norlen O, Stalberg P, Oberg K, Eriksson J, Hedberg J, Hessman O, Janson ET, Hellman P, Akerstrom G: Long-term results of surgery for small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors at a tertiary referral center. World J Surg 2012;36:1419-1431.
  27. Aggarwal G, Obideen K, Wehbi M: Carcinoid tumors: what should increase our suspicion? Cleve Clin J Med 2008;75:849-855.
  28. Ahmed A, Turner G, King B, Jones L, Culliford D, McCance D, Ardill J, Johnston BT, Poston G, Rees M, Buxton-Thomas M, Caplin M, Ramage JK: Midgut neuroendocrine tumours with liver metastases: results of the UKINETS study. Endocr Relat Cancer 2009;16:885-894.
  29. Helland SK, Prosch AM, Viste A: Carcinoid tumours in the gastrointestinal tract - a population-based study from Western Norway. Scand J Surg 2006;95:158-161.
    External Resources
  30. Pape UF, Berndt U, Muller-Nordhorn J, Bohmig M, Roll S, Koch M, Willich SN, Wiedenmann B: Prognostic factors of long-term outcome in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. Endocr Relat Cancer 2008;15:1083-1097.
  31. Pape UF, Bohmig M, Berndt U, Tiling N, Wiedenmann B, Plockinger U: Survival and clinical outcome of patients with neuroendocrine tumors of the gastroenteropancreatic tract in a German referral center. Ann NY Acad Sci 2004;1014:222-233.
  32. Druce MR, Bharwani N, Akker SA, Drake WM, Rockall A, Grossman AB: Intra-abdominal fibrosis in a recent cohort of patients with neuroendocrine (‘carcinoid') tumours of the small bowel. QJM 2010;103:177-185.
  33. Castillo JG, Filsoufi F, Adams DH, Raikhelkar J, Zaku B, Fischer GW: Management of patients undergoing multivalvular surgery for carcinoid heart disease: the role of the anaesthetist. Br J Anaesth 2008;101:618-626.
  34. Kaltsas G, Rockall A, Papadogias D, Reznek R, Grossman AB: Recent advances in radiological and radionuclide imaging and therapy of neuroendocrine tumours. Eur J Endocrinol 2004;151:15-27.
  35. Ricke J, Klose KJ, Mignon M, Oberg K, Wiedenmann B: Standardisation of imaging in neuroendocrine tumours: results of a European delphi process. Eur J Radiol 2001;37:8-17.
  36. Kamaoui I, De-Luca V, Ficarelli S, Mennesson N, Lombard-Bohas C, Pilleul F: Value of CT enteroclysis in suspected small-bowel carcinoid tumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2010;194:629-633.
  37. Masselli G, Polettini E, Casciani E, Bertini L, Vecchioli A, Gualdi G: Small-bowel neoplasms: prospective evaluation of MR enteroclysis. Radiology 2009;251:743-750.
  38. Dorffel Y, Wermke W: Neuroendocrine tumors: characterization with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Ultraschall Med 2008;29:506-514.
  39. Bailey AA, Debinski HS, Appleyard MN, Remedios ML, Hooper JE, Walsh AJ, Selby WS: Diagnosis and outcome of small bowel tumors found by capsule endoscopy: a three-center Australian experience. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:2237-2243.
  40. Bellutti M, Fry LC, Schmitt J, Seemann M, Klose S, Malfertheiner P, Monkemuller K: Detection of neuroendocrine tumors of the small bowel by double balloon enteroscopy. Dig Dis Sci 2009;54:1050-1058.
  41. Frilling A, Smith G, Clift AK, Martin J: Capsule endoscopy to detect primary tumour site in metastatic neuroendocrine tumours. Dig Liver Dis 2014;46:1038-1042.
  42. Ambrosini V, Tomassetti P, Castellucci P, Campana D, Montini G, Rubello D, Nanni C, Rizzello A, Franchi R, Fanti S: Comparison between 68Ga-DOTA-NOC and 18F-DOPA PET for the detection of gastro-entero-pancreatic and lung neuro-endocrine tumours. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2008;35:1431-1438.
  43. Buchmann I, Henze M, Engelbrecht S, Eisenhut M, Runz A, Schafer M, Schilling T, Haufe S, Herrmann T, Haberkorn U: Comparison of 68Ga-DOTATOC PET and 111In-DTPAOC (Octreoscan) SPECT in patients with neuroendocrine tumours. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2007;34:1617-1626.
  44. Ezziddin S, Logvinski T, Yong-Hing C, Ahmadzadehfar H, Fischer HP, Palmedo H, Bucerius J, Reinhardt MJ, Biersack HJ: Factors predicting tracer uptake in somatostatin receptor and MIBG scintigraphy of metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. J Nucl Med 2006;47:223-233.
    External Resources
  45. Gabriel M, Decristoforo C, Kendler D, Dobrozemsky G, Heute D, Uprimny C, Kovacs P, Von Guggenberg E, Bale R, Virgolini IJ: 68Ga-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide PET in neuroendocrine tumors: comparison with somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and CT. J Nucl Med 2007;48:508-518.
  46. Haug A, Auernhammer CJ, Wangler B, Tiling R, Schmidt G, Goke B, Bartenstein P, Popperl G: Intraindividual comparison of 68Ga- DOTA-TATE and 18F-DOPA PET in patients with well-differentiated metastatic neuroendocrine tumours. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2009;36:765-770.
  47. Koopmans KP, Neels OC, Kema IP, Elsinga PH, Sluiter WJ, Vanghillewe K, Brouwers AH, Jager PL, de Vries EG: Improved staging of patients with carcinoid and islet cell tumors with 18F-dihydroxy-phenyl-alanine and 11C- 5-hydroxy-tryptophan positron emission tomography. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:1489-1495.
  48. Montravers F, Kerrou K, Nataf V, Huchet V, Lotz JP, Ruszniewski P, Rougier P, Duron F, Bouchard P, Grange JD, Houry S, Talbot JN: Impact of fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine-18F positron emission tomography on management of adult patients with documented or occult digestive endocrine tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009;94:1295-1301.
  49. Orlefors H, Sundin A, Garske U, Juhlin C, Oberg K, Skogseid B, Langstrom B, Bergstrom M, Eriksson B: Whole-body (11)C-5-hydroxytryptophan positron emission tomography as a universal imaging technique for neuroendocrine tumors: comparison with somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and computed tomography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:3392-3400.
  50. Prasad V, Ambrosini V, Hommann M, Hoersch D, Fanti S, Baum RP: Detection of unknown primary neuroendocrine tumours (CUP-NET) using (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC receptor PET/CT. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2010;37:67-77.
  51. Prasad V, Baum RP: Biodistribution of the Ga-68 labeled somatostatin analogue DOTA-NOC in patients with neuroendocrine tumors: characterization of uptake in normal organs and tumor lesions. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2010;54:61-67.
    External Resources
  52. Ruf J, Heuck F, Schiefer J, Denecke T, Elgeti F, Pascher A, Pavel M, Stelter L, Kropf S, Wiedenmann B, Amthauer H: Impact of multiphase 68Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT on therapy management in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Neuroendocrinology 2010;91:101-109.
  53. Ruf J, Schiefer J, Furth C, Kosiek O, Kropf S, Heuck F, Denecke T, Pavel M, Pascher A, Wiedenmann B, Amthauer H: 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT of neuroendocrine tumors: spotlight on the CT phases of a triple-phase protocol. J Nucl Med 2011;52:697-704.
  54. Ruf J, Steffen I, Mehl S, Rosner C, Denecke T, Pape UF, Plotkin M, Amthauer H: Influence of attenuation correction by integrated low-dose CT on somatostatin receptor SPECT. Nucl Med Commun 2007;28:782-788.
  55. Koopmans KP, de Vries EG, Kema IP, Elsinga PH, Neels OC, Sluiter WJ, van der Horst-Schrivers AN, Jager PL: Staging of carcinoid tumours with 18F-DOPA PET: a prospective, diagnostic accuracy study. Lancet Oncol 2006;7:728-734.
  56. Schreiter NF, Bartels AM, Froeling V, Steffen I, Pape UF, Beck A, Hamm B, Brenner W, Rottgen R: Searching for primaries in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of unknown primary and clinically suspected NET: evaluation of Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT and In-111 DTPA octreotide SPECT/CT. Radiol Oncol 2014;48:339-347.
  57. Meijer WG, van der Veer E, Jager PL, van der Jagt EJ, Piers BA, Kema IP, de Vries EG, Willemse PH: Bone metastases in carcinoid tumors: clinical features, imaging characteristics, and markers of bone metabolism. J Nucl Med 2003;44:184-191.
    External Resources
  58. Ardill JE, Erikkson B: The importance of the measurement of circulating markers in patients with neuroendocrine tumours of the pancreas and gut. Endocr Relat Cancer 2003;10:459-462.
  59. Eriksson B, Oberg K: Peptide hormones as tumor markers in neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumors. Acta Oncol 1991;30:477-483.
  60. Feldman JM, O'Dorisio TM: Role of neuropeptides and serotonin in the diagnosis of carcinoid tumors. Am J Med 1986;81:41-48.
  61. Arnold R, Wilke A, Rinke A, Mayer C, Kann PH, Klose KJ, Scherag A, Hahmann M, Muller HH, Barth P: Plasma chromogranin A as marker for survival in patients with metastatic endocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumors. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008;6:820-827.
  62. Korse CM, Bonfrer JM, Aaronson NK, Hart AA, Taal BG: Chromogranin A as an alternative to 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the evaluation of symptoms during treatment of patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Neuroendocrinology 2009;89:296-301.
  63. Peracchi M, Gebbia C, Basilisco G, Quatrini M, Tarantino C, Vescarelli C, Massironi S, Conte D: Plasma chromogranin A in patients with autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis, enterochromaffin-like cell lesions and gastric carcinoids. Eur J Endocrinol 2005;152:443-448.
  64. Giusti M, Sidoti M, Augeri C, Rabitti C, Minuto F: Effect of short-term treatment with low dosages of the proton-pump inhibitor omeprazole on serum chromogranin A levels in man. Eur J Endocrinol 2004;150:299-303.
  65. Massironi S, Fraquelli M, Paggi S, Sangiovanni A, Conte D, Sciola V, Ciafardini C, Colombo M, Peracchi M: Chromogranin A levels in chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Dig Liver Dis 2009;41:31-35.
  66. Spadaro A, Ajello A, Morace C, Zirilli A, D'Arrigo G, Luigiano C, Martino F, Bene A, Migliorato D, Turiano S, Ferrau O, Freni MA: Serum chromogranin-A in hepatocellular carcinoma: diagnostic utility and limits. World J Gastroenterol 2005;11:1987-1990.
  67. Welin S, Stridsberg M, Cunningham J, Granberg D, Skogseid B, Oberg K, Eriksson B, Janson ET: Elevated plasma chromogranin A is the first indication of recurrence in radically operated midgut carcinoid tumors. Neuroendocrinology 2009;89:302-307.
  68. Kema IP, Meijer WG, Meiborg G, Ooms B, Willemse PH, de Vries EG: Profiling of tryptophan-related plasma indoles in patients with carcinoid tumors by automated, on-line, solid-phase extraction and HPLC with fluorescence detection. Clin Chem 2001;47:1811-1820.
    External Resources
  69. Meijer WG, Kema IP, Volmer M, Willemse PH, de Vries EG: Discriminating capacity of indole markers in the diagnosis of carcinoid tumors. Clin Chem 2000;46:1588-1596.
    External Resources
  70. O'Toole D, Grossman A, Gross D, Delle Fave G, Barkmanova J, O'Connor J, Pape UF, Plockinger U: ENETS consensus guidelines for the standards of care in neuroendocrine tumors: biochemical markers. Neuroendocrinology 2009;90:194-202.
  71. Hamilton S: Tumours of the Digestive System. Pathology and Genetics. WHO Classification of Tumours. Lyon, ARC, 2000.
  72. Sobin LH, Gospodarowicz MK, Wittekind C: TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours. Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.
  73. Welin S, Sorbye H, Sebjornsen S, Knappskog S, Busch C, Oberg K: Clinical effect of temozolomide-based chemotherapy in poorly differentiated endocrine carcinoma after progression on first-line chemotherapy. Cancer 2011;117:4617-4622.
  74. Miederer M, Seidl S, Buck A, Scheidhauer K, Wester HJ, Schwaiger M, Perren A: Correlation of immunohistopathological expression of somatostatin receptor 2 with standardised uptake values in 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2009;36:48-52.
  75. Schmitt AM, Riniker F, Anlauf M, Schmid S, Soltermann A, Moch H, Heitz PU, Kloppel G, Komminoth P, Perren A: Islet 1 (Isl1) expression is a reliable marker for pancreatic endocrine tumors and their metastases. Am J Surg Pathol 2008;32:420-425.
  76. Besig S, Voland P, Baur DM, Perren A, Prinz C: Vascular endothelial growth factors, angiogenesis, and survival in human ileal enterochromaffin cell carcinoids. Neuroendocrinology 2009;90:402-415.
  77. Grabowski P, Schrader J, Wagner J, Horsch D, Arnold R, Arnold CN, Georgieva I, Stein H, Zeitz M, Daniel PT, Sturm I: Loss of nuclear p27 expression and its prognostic role in relation to cyclin E and p53 mutation in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Clin Cancer Res 2008;14:7378-7384.
  78. Voland P, Besig S, Rad R, Braun T, Baur DM, Perren A, Langer R, Hofler H, Prinz C: Correlation of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase expression in ileal carcinoids, lymph nodes and liver metastasis with prognosis and survival. Neuroendocrinology 2009;89:66-78.
  79. Hassan MM, Phan A, Li D, Dagohoy CG, Leary C, Yao JC: Family history of cancer and associated risk of developing neuroendocrine tumors: a case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17:959-965.
  80. Hemminki K, Li X: Familial carcinoid tumors and subsequent cancers: a nation-wide epidemiologic study from Sweden. Int J Cancer 2001;94:444-448.
  81. Jarhult J, Landerholm K, Falkmer S, Nordenskjold M, Sundler F, Wierup N: First report on metastasizing small bowel carcinoids in first-degree relatives in three generations. Neuroendocrinology 2010;91:318-323.
  82. Stancu M, Wu TT, Wallace C, Houlihan PS, Hamilton SR, Rashid A: Genetic alterations in goblet cell carcinoids of the vermiform appendix and comparison with gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors. Mod Pathol 2003;16:1189-1198.
  83. Tonnies H, Toliat MR, Ramel C, Pape UF, Neitzel H, Berger W, Wiedenmann B: Analysis of sporadic neuroendocrine tumours of the enteropancreatic system by comparative genomic hybridisation. Gut 2001;48:536-541.
  84. Ahlman H, Wangberg B, Jansson S, Friman S, Olausson M, Tylen U, Nilsson O: Interventional treatment of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours. Digestion 2000;62(suppl 1): 59-68.
  85. Akerstrom G, Makridis C, Johansson H: Abdominal surgery in patients with midgut carcinoid tumors. Acta Oncol 1991;30:547-553.
  86. Goede AC, Winslet MC: Surgery for carcinoid tumours of the lower gastrointestinal tract. Colorectal Dis 2003;5:123-128.
  87. Han SL, Cheng J, Zhou HZ, Guo SC, Jia ZR, Wang PF: Surgically treated primary malignant tumor of small bowel: a clinical analysis. World J Gastroenterol 2010;16:1527-1532.
  88. Makridis C, Oberg K, Juhlin C, Rastad J, Johansson H, Lorelius LE, Akerstrom G: Surgical treatment of mid-gut carcinoid tumors. World J Surg 1990;14:377-383; discussion 384-375.
  89. Norton JA: Surgical management of carcinoid tumors: role of debulking and surgery for patients with advanced disease. Digestion 1994;55(suppl 3):98-103.
  90. Rothmund M, Kisker O: Surgical treatment of carcinoid tumors of the small bowel, appendix, colon and rectum. Digestion 1994;55(suppl 3):86-91.
  91. Sutton R, Doran HE, Williams EM, Vora J, Vinjamuri S, Evans J, Campbell F, Raraty MG, Ghaneh P, Hartley M, Poston GJ, Neoptolemos JP: Surgery for midgut carcinoid. Endocr Relat Cancer 2003;10:469-481.
  92. Ohrvall U, Eriksson B, Juhlin C, Karacagil S, Rastad J, Hellman P, Akerstrom G: Method for dissection of mesenteric metastases in mid-gut carcinoid tumors. World J Surg 2000;24:1402-1408.
  93. Landry CS, Lin HY, Phan A, Charnsangavej C, Abdalla EK, Aloia T, Nicolas Vauthey J, Katz MH, Yao JC, Fleming JB: Resection of at-risk mesenteric lymph nodes is associated with improved survival in patients with small bowel neuroendocrine tumors. World J Surg 2013;37:1695-1700.
  94. Habbe N, Fendrich V, Heverhagen A, Ramaswamy A, Bartsch DK: Outcome of surgery for ileojejunal neuroendocrine tumors. Surg Today 2013;43:1168-1174.
  95. Landerholm K, Zar N, Andersson RE, Falkmer SE, Jarhult J: Survival and prognostic factors in patients with small bowel carcinoid tumour. Br J Surg 2011;98:1617-1624.
  96. Hellman P, Lundstrom T, Ohrvall U, Eriksson B, Skogseid B, Oberg K, Tiensuu Janson E, Akerstrom G: Effect of surgery on the outcome of midgut carcinoid disease with lymph node and liver metastases. World J Surg 2002;26:991-997.
  97. Wang YZ, Carrasquillo JP, McCord E, Vidrine R, Lobo ML, Zamin SA, Boudreaux P, Woltering E: Reappraisal of lymphatic mapping for midgut neuroendocrine patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery. Surgery 2014;156:1498-1502; discussion 1502-1503.
  98. Shamiyeh A, Gabriel M: Laparoscopic resection of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors with special contribution of radionuclide imaging. World J Gastroenterol 2014;20:15608-15615.
  99. Eriksson J, Stalberg P, Nilsson A, Krause J, Lundberg C, Skogseid B, Granberg D, Eriksson B, Akerstrom G, Hellman P: Surgery and radiofrequency ablation for treatment of liver metastases from midgut and foregut carcinoids and endocrine pancreatic tumors. World J Surg 2008;32:930-938.
  100. Norlen O, Hessman O, Stalberg P, Akerstrom G, Hellman P: Prophylactic cholecystectomy in midgut carcinoid patients. World J Surg 2010;34:1361-1367.
  101. Toumpanakis C, Garland J, Marelli L, Srirajaskanthan R, Soh J, Davies P, Buscombe J, Caplin ME: Long-term results of patients with malignant carcinoid syndrome receiving octreotide LAR. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2009;30:733-740.
  102. Pavel M, Baudin E, Couvelard A, et al: ENETS consensus guidelines for the management of patients with liver and other distant metastases from neuroendocrine neoplasms of foregut, midgut, hindgut and unknown primary. Neuroendocrinology 2012;95:157-176.
  103. Schindl M, Kaczirek K, Passler C, Kaserer K, Prager G, Scheuba C, Raderer M, Niederle B: Treatment of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors: is an extended multimodal approach justified? World J Surg 2002;26:976-984.
  104. Givi B, Pommier SJ, Thompson AK, Diggs BS, Pommier RF: Operative resection of primary carcinoid neoplasms in patients with liver metastases yields significantly better survival. Surgery 2006;140:891-897; discussion 897-898.
  105. Capurso G, Rinzivillo M, Bettini R, Boninsegna L, Delle Fave G, Falconi M: Systematic review of resection of primary midgut carcinoid tumour in patients with unresectable liver metastases. Br J Surg 2012;99:1480-1486.
  106. Steinmuller T, Kianmanesh R, Falconi M, Scarpa A, Taal B, Kwekkeboom DJ, Lopes JM, Perren A, Nikou G, Yao J, Delle Fave GF, O'Toole D: Consensus guidelines for the management of patients with liver metastases from digestive (neuro)endocrine tumors: foregut, midgut, hindgut, and unknown primary. Neuroendocrinology 2008;87:47-62.
  107. Bhattacharyya S, Davar J, Dreyfus G, Caplin ME: Carcinoid heart disease. Circulation 2007;116:2860-2865.
  108. Castillo JG, Filsoufi F, Rahmanian PB, Anyanwu A, Zacks JS, Warner RR, Adams DH: Early and late results of valvular surgery for carcinoid heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008;51:1507-1509.
  109. Mansencal N, Mitry E, Bachet JB, Rougier P, Dubourg O: Echocardiographic follow-up of treated patients with carcinoid syndrome. Am J Cardiol 2010;105:1588-1591.
  110. Moller JE, Connolly HM, Rubin J, Seward JB, Modesto K, Pellikka PA: Factors associated with progression of carcinoid heart disease. N Engl J Med 2003;348:1005-1015.
  111. Moller JE, Pellikka PA, Bernheim AM, Schaff HV, Rubin J, Connolly HM: Prognosis of carcinoid heart disease: analysis of 200 cases over two decades. Circulation 2005;112:3320-3327.
  112. Norheim I, Oberg K, Theodorsson-Norheim E, Lindgren PG, Lundqvist G, Magnusson A, Wide L, Wilander E: Malignant carcinoid tumors. An analysis of 103 patients with regard to tumor localization, hormone production, and survival. Ann Surg 1987;206:115-125.
  113. Zuetenhorst JM, Bonfrer JM, Korse CM, Bakker R, van Tinteren H, Taal BG: Carcinoid heart disease: the role of urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid excretion and plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide, transforming growth factor-beta and fibroblast growth factor. Cancer 2003;97:1609-1615.
  114. Grozinsky-Glasberg S, Grossman AB, Gross DJ: Carcinoid heart disease: from pathophysiology to treatment - ‘Something in the way it moves'. Neuroendocrinology 2015;101:263-273.
  115. Bhattacharyya S, Raja SG, Toumpanakis C, Caplin ME, Dreyfus GD, Davar J: Outcomes, risks and complications of cardiac surgery for carcinoid heart disease. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2011;40:168-172.
  116. Druce M, Rockall A, Grossman AB: Fibrosis and carcinoid syndrome: from causation to future therapy. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2009;5:276-283.
  117. Jacobsen MB, Nitter-Hauge S, Bryde PE, Hanssen LE: Cardiac manifestations in mid-gut carcinoid disease. Eur Heart J 1995;16:263-268.
    External Resources
  118. Bhattacharyya S, Toumpanakis C, Chilkunda D, Caplin ME, Davar J: Risk factors for the development and progression of carcinoid heart disease. Am J Cardiol 2011;107:1221-1226.
  119. Sandmann H, Pakkal M, Steeds R: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of carcinoid heart disease. Clin Radiol 2009;64:761-766.
  120. Mansencal N, McKenna WJ, Mitry E, Beauchet A, Pellerin D, Rougier P, Dubourg O: Comparison of prognostic value of tissue Doppler imaging in carcinoid heart disease versus the value in patients with the carcinoid syndrome but without carcinoid heart disease. Am J Cardiol 2010;105:527-531.
  121. Zuetenhorst JM, Korse CM, Bonfrer JM, Bakker RH, Taal BG: Role of natriuretic peptides in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with carcinoid heart disease. Br J Cancer 2004;90:2073-2079.
  122. Mansencal N, Mitry E, Forissier JF, Martin F, Redheuil A, Lepere C, Farcot JC, Joseph T, Lacombe P, Rougier P, Dubourg O: Assessment of patent foramen ovale in carcinoid heart disease. Am Heart J 2006;151:1129 e1121-e1126.
  123. Mansencal N, Mitry E, Pilliere R, Lepere C, Gerardin B, Petit J, Gandjbakhch I, Rougier P, Dubourg O: Prevalence of patent foramen ovale and usefulness of percutaneous closure device in carcinoid heart disease. Am J Cardiol 2008;101:1035-1038.
  124. Arnold R, Chen YJ, Costa F, Falconi M, Gross D, Grossman AB, Hyrdel R, Kos-Kudla B, Salazar R, Plockinger U: ENETS consensus guidelines for the standards of care in neuroendocrine tumors: follow-up and documentation. Neuroendocrinology 2009;90:227-233.
  125. Moertel CG: Karnofsky memorial lecture. An odyssey in the land of small tumors. J Clin Oncol 1987;5:1502-1522.
    External Resources
  126. Delle Fave G, O'Toole D, Sundin A, Taal B, Ferolla P, Ramage JK, Ferone D, Ito T, Weber W, Zheng-Pei Z, De Herder WW, Pascher A, Ruszniewski P; all other Vienna Consensus Conference participants: ENETS consensus guidelines update for gastroduodenal neuroendocrine neoplasms. Neuroendocrinology 2016;103:119-124.
  127. Ramage JK, De Herder WW, Delle Fave G, Ferolla P, Ferone D, Ito T, Ruszniewski P, Sundin A, Weber W, Zheng-Pei Z, Taal B, Pascher A; all other Vienna Consensus Conference participants: ENETS consensus guidelines update for colorectal neuroendocrine neoplasms. Neuroendocrinology 2016;103:139-143.
  128. Pape UF, Niederle B, Costa F, Gross D, Kelestimur F, Kianmanesh R, Knigge U, Öberg K, Pavel M, Perren A, Toumpanakis C, O'Connor J, Krenning E, Reed N, O'Toole D; all other Vienna Consensus Conference participants: ENETS consensus guidelines for neuroendocrine neoplasms of the appendix (excluding goblet cell carcinomas). Neuroendocrinology 2016;103:144-152.
  129. Falconi M, Eriksson B, Kaltsas G, Bartsch DK, Capdevila J, Caplin M, Kos-Kudla B, Kwekkeboom D, Rindi G, Klöppel G, Reed N, Kianmanesh R, Jensen RT; all other Vienna Consensus Conference participants: ENETS consensus guidelines update for the management of functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Neuroendocrinology 2016;103:153-171.
  130. Pavel M, O'Toole D, Costa F, Capdevila J, Gross D, Kianmanesh R, Krenning E, Knigge U, Salazar R, Pape UF, Öberg K; all other Vienna Consensus Conference participants: ENETS consensus guidelines update for the management of distant metastatic disease of intestinal, pancreatic, bronchial neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) and NEN of unknown primary site. Neuroendocrinology 2016;103:172-185.
  131. Garcia-Carbonero R, Sorbye H, Baudin E, Raymond E, Wiedenmann B, Niederle B, Sedlackova E, Toumpanakis C, Anlauf M, Cwikla JB, Caplin M, O'Toole D, Perren A; all other Vienna Consensus Conference participants: ENETS consensus guidelines for high-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and neuroendocrine carcinomas. Neuroendocrinology 2016;103: 186-194.

Article / Publication Details

Published online: January 12, 2016
Issue release date: April 2016

Number of Print Pages: 14
Number of Figures: 2
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 0028-3835 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0194 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/NEN


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.