Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.

Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Original Paper

Open Access Gateway

The Phonetics and Phonology of the Polish Calling Melodies

Arvaniti A.a · Żygis M.b · Jaskuła M.c

Author affiliations

aUniversity of Kent, Canterbury, UK; bCentre for General Linguistics and Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany; cWest Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland

Corresponding Author

Marzena Żygis

Centre for General Linguistics (ZAS)

Schützenstrasse 18

DE-10-117 Berlin (Germany)

E-Mail zygis@zas.gwz-berlin.de

Related Articles for ""

Phonetica 2016;73:338-361

Do you have an account?

Login Information

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.


Two calling melodies of Polish were investigated, the routine call, used to call someone for an everyday reason, and the urgent call, which conveys disapproval of the addressee's actions. A Discourse Completion Task was used to elicit the two melodies from Polish speakers using twelve names from one to four syllables long; there were three names per syllable count, and speakers produced three tokens of each name with each melody. The results, based on eleven speakers, show that the routine calling melody consists of a low F0 stretch followed by a rise-fall-rise; the urgent calling melody, on the other hand, is a simple rise-fall. Systematic differences were found in the scaling and alignment of tonal targets: the routine call showed late alignment of the accentual pitch peak, and in most instances lower scaling of targets. The accented vowel was also affected, being overall louder in the urgent call. Based on the data and comparisons with other Polish melodies, we analyze the routine call as LH* !H-H% and the urgent call as H* L-L%. We discuss the results and our analysis in light of recent findings on calling melodies in other languages, and explore their repercussions for intonational phonology and the modeling of intonation.

© 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel


  1. Arvaniti A (2011): The representation of intonation; in van Oostendorp M, Ewen CJ, Hume E, Rice K (eds): Companion to Phonology. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.
  2. Arvaniti A (2016): Analytical decisions in intonation research and the role of representations: lessons from Romani. Laboratory Phonology: Journal of the Association for Laboratory Phonology 7:1-43.
  3. Arvaniti A, Baltazani M (2005): Intonational analysis and prosodic annotation of Greek spoken corpora; in Jun S-A (ed): Prosodic Typology: The Phonology of Intonation and Phrasing. Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp 84-117.
  4. Arvaniti A, Ladd DR, Mennen I (2006): Tonal association and tonal alignment: evidence from Greek polar questions and contrastive statements. Lang Speech 49(pt 4):421-450.
  5. Arvaniti A, Garding G (2007): Dialectal variation in the rising accents of American English; in Cole J, Hualde JI (eds): Papers in Laboratory Phonology 9. Berlin, New York, Mouton de Gruyter, pp 547-576.
  6. Arvaniti A, Ladd DR (2009): Greek wh-questions and the phonology of intonation. Phonology 26:43-74.
  7. Arvaniti A, Ladd DR (2015): Underspecification in intonation revisited: a reply to Xu, Lee, Prom-On & Liu. Phonology 32:537-541.
  8. Baltazani M (2006): Intonation and pragmatic interpretation of negation in Greek. J Pragmatics 38:1658-1676.
  9. Bates D, Maechler M, Bolker B, Walker S, Christensen RHB, Singmann H, Dai B, Grothendieck G (2015): lme4. R package version 1, pp 1-10.
  10. Barr DJ, Levy R, Scheepers Ch, Tily HJ (2013): Random effects structure for confirmatory hypothesis testing: keep it maximal. J Mem Lang 68:255-278.
  11. Beckman ME (1986): Stress and Non-Stress Accent. Dordrecht, Foris.
  12. Barnes J, Shattuck-Hufnagel S, Brugos A, Veilleux N (2006): The domain of realization of the L-phrase tone in American English. Proc Speech Prosody, Dresden.
  13. Borràs-Comes J, Sichel-Bazin R, Prieto P (2015): Vocative intonation preferences are sensitive to politeness factors. Lang Speech 58:68-83.
  14. Brugos A, Shattuck-Hufnagel S, Veilleux N (2006): Transcribing Prosodic Structure of Spoken Utterances with ToBI (MIT Open Courseware). http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/electrical-engineering-and-computer-science/6-911-transcribing-prosodic-structure-of-spoken-utterances-with-tobi-january-iap-2006/.
  15. Chahal D, Hellmuth S (2014): The Intonation of Lebanese and Egyptian Arabic; in Jun S-A (ed): Prosodic Typology II. Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp 365-404.
  16. Demenko G (1999): Analiza cech suprasegmentalnych języka polskiego na potrzeby technologii mowy. Poznań, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza.
  17. Demenko G (2015): Korpusowe badania języka mówionego. Warszawa, Akademicka Oficyna Wydawnicza Exit.
  18. Dłuska M (1947): Prozodia jȩzyka polskiego. Kraków, Polska Akademia Umiejętności.
  19. Dukiewicz L (1978): Intonacja wypowiedzi polskich. Wrocław, Zakład Narodowy imienia Ossolińskich.
  20. Francuzik K, Karpiński M, Kleśta J, Szalkowska E (2004): Nuclear melody in Polish semi-spontaneous and read speech. Evidence from the Polish Intonational Database PoInt. Studia Phonetica Posnaniensia 7:97-128.
  21. Frota S (2014): The intonational phonology of European Portuguese; in Jun S (ed): Prosodic Typology II: The Phonology of Intonation and Phrasing. Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp 6-42.
  22. Frota S, Cruz M, Svartman F, Collischonn G, Fonseca A, Serra C, Pedro O, Vigário M (2015): Intonational variation in Portuguese: European and Brazilian varieties; in Frota S, Prieto P (eds): Intonation in Romance. Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp 235-283.
  23. Gibbon D (1998): Intonation in German; in Hirst D, Di Cristo A (eds): Intonation Systems: A Survey of 20 Languages. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp 78-95.
  24. Gordon M (2002): A phonetically-driven account of syllable weight. Language 78:51-80.
  25. Gordon M (2005): A perceptually-driven account of onset-sensitive stress. Nat Lang Linguist Theory 23:595-653.
  26. Grice M, Ladd DR, Arvaniti A (2000): On the place of ‘phrase accents' in intonational phonology. Phonology 17:143-185.
  27. Grice M, Baumann S, Benzmüller R (2005): German intonation in autosegmental-metrical phonology; in Jun S-A (ed): Prosodic Typology: The Phonology of Intonation and Phrasing. Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp 55-83.
  28. Gussenhoven C (2004): The Phonology of Tone and Intonation. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  29. Gussenhoven C (2005): Transcription of Dutch intonation; in Jun S-A (ed): Prosodic Typology: The Phonology of Intonation and Phrasing. Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp 118-145.
  30. Gussenhoven C (2007): The phonology of intonation; in de Lacy P (ed): The Cambridge Handbook of Phonology. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp 253-280.
  31. Gussenhoven C, Rietveld T, Kerkhoff J, Terken J (2003): ToDI second edition. http://todi.let.kun.nl/ToDI/home.htm.
  32. Jassem W (1987): Computer-based classification of basic Polish intonations. Proceedings of the 11th ICPhS, Talin, pp 253-256.
  33. Jassem W, Demenko G (1986): Extracting linguistic information from F0 traces; in Catherin J-L (ed): Intonation in Discourse. Croom & Helm, London.
  34. Karpiński M (2006): Struktura i intonacja polskiego dialogu zadaniowego. Poznań, Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM.
  35. Kraska-Szlenk I (2003): The phonology of stress in Polish. Lincom, München.
  36. Kuznetsova A, Brockhoff PB, Christensen RHB (2015): Package ‘lmerTest'. R package version 2.0-29.
  37. Ladd DR (2008a): Intonational Phonology. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  38. Ladd DR (2008b): Review of Jun S (ed): (2005). Prosodic Typology: The Phonology of Intonation and Phrasing. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Phonology, vol 25, pp 372-376.
  39. Liberman M (1975): The Intonational System of English. PhD thesis, MIT.
  40. Niebuhr·(2008): Coding of intonational meanings beyond F0: evidence from utterance-final /t/ aspiration in German. J Acoust Soc Am 124:1252-1263.
  41. Niebuhr·(2012): At the edge of intonation: the interplay of utterance-final F0 movements and voiceless fricative sounds. Phonetica 69:7-21.
  42. Pierrehumbert J (1980): The Phonology and Phonetics of English Intonation. PhD Thesis, MIT.
  43. Prieto P (2014): The intonational phonology of Catalan; in Jun S-A (ed): Prosodic Typology II: The Phonology of Intonation and Phrasing. Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp 43-80.
  44. Rubach J, Booji GE (1985): A grid theory of stress in Polish. Lingua 66:281-319.
  45. R Development Core Team (2008): R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org.
  46. Sluijter AMC, van Heuven VJ (1996a): Spectral balance as an acoustic correlate of linguistic stress. J Acoust Soc Am 100:2471-2485.
  47. Sluijter AMC, van Heuven VJ, Pacilly JJA (1996b): Spectral balance as a cue in the perception of linguistic stress. J Acoust Soc Am 101:503-513.
  48. Steffen-Batogowa M (1996): Struktura przebiegu melodii języka polskiego ogólnego. Poznań, Sorus.
  49. Varga L (2008): The calling contour in Hungarian and English. Phonology 25:169-497.
  50. Wagner A (2008): A comprehensive model of intonation for application in speech synthesis. PhD dissertation. Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan.
  51. Xu Y, Lee A, Prom-on S, Liu F (2015): Explaining the PENTA model: a reply to Arvaniti and Ladd. Phonology 32:505-541.
  52. Żygis M, Pape D, Jesus L, Jaskuła M (2014): Intended intonation of statements and polar questions in Polish in whispered, semi-whispered and normal speech modes. Speech Prosody. http://www.speechprosody2014.org/.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: June 28, 2015
Accepted: April 03, 2016
Published online: February 23, 2017
Issue release date: February 2017

Number of Print Pages: 24
Number of Figures: 12
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 0031-8388 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0321 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/PHO

Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.