Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.

Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.


Free Access

Tissue Engineering Approaches to Modulate the Inflammatory Milieu following Spinal Cord Injury

Dumont C.M.a · Margul D.J.a, c · Shea L.D.a, b

Author affiliations

Departments of aBiomedical Engineering and bChemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., and cDepartment of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill., USA

Corresponding Author

Lonnie D. Shea

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan

1119 Carl A. Gerstacker Building, 2200 Bonisteel Boulevard

Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (USA)

E-Mail ldshea@umich.edu

Related Articles for ""

Cells Tissues Organs 2015–16;202:52–66

Do you have an account?

Login Information

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.


Tissue engineering strategies have shown promise in promoting healing and regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI); however, these strategies are limited by inflammation and the immune response. Infiltration of cells of the innate and adaptive immune responses and the inflammation that follows cause secondary damage adjacent to the injury, increased scarring, and a potently inhibitory environment for the regeneration of damaged neurons. While the inflammation that ensues is typically associated with limited regeneration, the immune response is a crucial element in the closing of the blood-brain barrier, minimizing the spread of injury, and initiating healing. This review summarizes the strategies that have been developed to modulate the immune response towards an anti-inflammatory environment that is permissive to the regeneration of neurons, glia, and parenchyma. We focus on the use of biomaterials, biologically active molecules, gene therapy, nanoparticles, and stem cells to modulate the immune response, and illustrate concepts for future therapies. Current clinical treatments for SCI are limited to systemic hypothermia or methylprednisolone, which both act by systemically mitigating the effects of immune response but have marginal efficacy. Herein, we discuss emerging research strategies to further enhance these clinical treatments by directly targeting specific aspects of the immune response.

© 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Review

Accepted: May 08, 2016
Published online: October 05, 2016
Issue release date: October 2016

Number of Print Pages: 15
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 1422-6405 (Print)
eISSN: 1422-6421 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/CTO

Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.