Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Original Paper

Body Composition within the First 3 Months: Optimized Correction for Length and Correlation with BMI at 2 Years

Hawkes C.P.a,d,i · Zemel B.S.b, c · Kiely M.f, g · Irvine A.D.h, i · Kenny L.C.e, g · O'B Hourihane J.d, g · Murray D.M.d, g

Author affiliations

Divisions of aEndocrinology and Diabetes, and bGastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and cPerelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., USA; Departments of dPaediatrics and Child Health, and eObstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork, fSchool of Food and Nutritional Science, University College Cork, and gThe Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research, Cork, and hDepartment of Clinical Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, and iThe National Children's Research Centre, Dublin, Ireland

Related Articles for ""

Horm Res Paediatr 2016;86:178-187

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information










I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Login Information





Contact Information










I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

CHF 38.00 *
EUR 35.00 *
USD 39.00 *

Select

KAB

Buy a Karger Article Bundle (KAB) and profit from a discount!

If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in.


Save over 20% compared to the individual article price.
Learn more

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restrictions apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00


Select

Subscribe

  • Access to all articles of the subscribed year(s) guaranteed for 5 years
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select

* The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: April 19, 2016
Accepted: July 21, 2016
Published online: August 25, 2016
Issue release date: October 2016

Number of Print Pages: 10
Number of Figures: 3
Number of Tables: 4

ISSN: 1663-2818 (Print)
eISSN: 1663-2826 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/HRP

Abstract

Background/Aims: Although early infant growth has implications for future health, body composition reference data in infancy are limited. The aim of this study was to describe reference data for fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) corrected for length (L) within the first 3 months and to evaluate if these measures predict the body mass index (BMI) at 2 years. Methods: Term infants had air displacement plethysmography performed at birth (n = 1,063) and approximately 2 months later (n = 922, between 49 and 86 days). Age- and sex-specific reference data were generated for FM, FFM, FM/L3 and FFM/L2 and compared with BMI at 2 years. Results: FM/L3 and FFM/L2 were the optimal indices independent of length. In the first 3 months, mean FM/L3 increased (males, from 2.7 to 5.9 kg/m3; females, from 3.2 to 6.1 kg/m3), whereas FFM/L2 remained relatively stable (males, from 11.8 to 12.7 kg/m2; females, from 12.8 to 12.1 kg/m2). The odds of a BMI Z-score ≥2 at 2 years increased with increasing FM (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.97-3.7) and weight (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.64-3.13) Z-scores at 2 months. Conclusions: FM/L3 and FFM/L2 provide length-independent measures of FM and FFM in infancy. During the first 3 months, there is an increase in FM/L3, but not in FFM/L2. The weight Z-score at 2 months is as good at predicting BMI at 2 years as body composition parameters.

© 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel


References

  1. Ong KK, Loos RJ: Rapid infancy weight gain and subsequent obesity: systematic reviews and hopeful suggestions. Acta Paediatr 2006;95:904-908.
  2. Perng W, Rifas-Shiman SL, Kramer MS, Haugaard LK, Oken E, Gillman MW, Belfort MB: Early weight gain, linear growth, and mid-childhood blood pressure: a prospective study in project Viva. Hypertension 2016;67:301-308.
  3. Leunissen RW, Kerkhof GF, Stijnen T, Hokken-Koelega A: Timing and tempo of first-year rapid growth in relation to cardiovascular and metabolic risk profile in early adulthood. JAMA 2009;301:2234-2242.
  4. Sepulveda C, Urquidi C, Pittaluga E, Iniguez G, Avila A, Carrasco F, Mericq V: Differences in body composition and resting energy expenditure in childhood in preterm children born with very low birth weight. Horm Res Paediatr 2013;79:347-355.
  5. Taveras EM, Rifas-Shiman SL, Sherry B, Oken E, Haines J, Kleinman K, Rich-Edwards JW, Gillman MW: Crossing growth percentiles in infancy and risk of obesity in childhood. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2011;165:993-998.
  6. Stettler N, Zemel BS, Kumanyika S, Stallings VA: Infant weight gain and childhood overweight status in a multicenter, cohort study. Pediatrics 2002;109:194-199.
    External Resources
  7. Whitaker RC, Wright JA, Pepe MS, Seidel KD, Dietz WH: Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. N Engl J Med 1997;337:869-873.
  8. Wright CM, Emmett PM, Ness AR, Reilly JJ, Sherriff A: Tracking of obesity and body fatness through mid-childhood. Arch Dis Child 2010;95:612-617.
  9. Skinner AC, Steiner MJ, Henderson FW, Perrin EM: Multiple markers of inflammation and weight status: cross-sectional analyses throughout childhood. Pediatrics 2010;125:801-809.
  10. Carolan E, Hogan AE, Corrigan M, Gaotswe G, O'Connell J, Foley N, O'Neill LA, Cody D, O'Shea D: The impact of childhood obesity on inflammation, innate immune cell frequency, and metabolic microRNA expression. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014;99:E474-E478.
  11. Sorof J, Daniels S: Obesity hypertension in children: a problem of epidemic proportions. Hypertension 2002;40:441-447.
  12. Armstrong KR, Cote AT, Devlin AM, Harris KC: Childhood obesity, arterial stiffness, and prevalence and treatment of hypertension. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med 2014;16:339.
  13. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM: Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA 2014;311:806-814.
  14. Sorva R, Tolppanen EM, Perheentupa J: Variation of growth in length and weight of children. 1. Years 1 and 2. Acta Paediatr Scand 1990;79:490-497.
  15. Roy SM, Chesi A, Mentch F, Xiao R, Chiavacci R, Mitchell JA, Kelly A, Hakonarson H, Grant SF, Zemel BS, McCormack SE: Body mass index (BMI) trajectories in infancy differ by population ancestry and may presage disparities in early childhood obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015;100:1551-1560.
  16. De Cunto A, Paviotti G, Ronfani L, Travan L, Bua J, Cont G, Demarini S: Can body mass index accurately predict adiposity in newborns? Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2014;99:F238-F239.
  17. Liu HN, Hourihane JO, Kenny L, Kiely M, Irvine AD, Murray DM: 404 comparison of body fat estimation using skin fold thickness measurement and simultaneous air-displacement plethysmography at 8 weeks. Pediatr Res 2010;68:208-208.
    External Resources
  18. Weber DR, Leonard MB, Zemel BS: Body composition analysis in the pediatric population. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2012;10:130-139.
    External Resources
  19. Modi N, Thomas EL, Harrington TA, Uthaya S, Dore CJ, Bell JD: Determinants of adiposity during preweaning postnatal growth in appropriately grown and growth-restricted term infants. Pediatr Res 2006;60:345-348.
  20. Ma G, Yao M, Liu Y, Lin A, Zou H, Urlando A, Wong WW, Nommsen-Rivers L, Dewey KG: Validation of a new pediatric air-displacement plethysmograph for assessing body composition in infants. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:653-660.
    External Resources
  21. Ellis KJ, Yao M, Shypailo RJ, Urlando A, Wong WW, Heird WC: Body-composition assessment in infancy: air-displacement plethysmography compared with a reference 4-compartment model. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:90-95.
    External Resources
  22. VanItallie TB, Yang MU, Heymsfield SB, Funk RC, Boileau RA: Height-normalized indices of the body's fat-free mass and fat mass: potentially useful indicators of nutritional status. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;52:953-959.
    External Resources
  23. Wells JC, Cole TJ, ALSPAC study team: Adjustment of fat-free mass and fat mass for height in children aged 8 y. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002;26:947-952.
  24. Freedman DS, Ogden CL, Berenson GS, Horlick M: Body mass index and body fatness in childhood. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2005;8:618-623.
  25. North RA, McCowan LM, Dekker GA, Poston L, Chan EH, Stewart AW, Black MA, Taylor RS, Walker JJ, Baker PN, Kenny LC: Clinical risk prediction for pre-eclampsia in nulliparous women: development of model in international prospective cohort. BMJ 2011;342:d1875.
  26. O'Donovan SM, Murray DM, Hourihane JO, Kenny LC, Irvine AD, Kiely M: Cohort profile: the cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study: babies after SCOPE: evaluating the longitudinal impact on neurological and nutritional endpoints. Int J Epidemiol 2014;44:764-775.
  27. Roggero P, Gianni ML, Amato O, Agosti M, Fumagalli M, Mosca F: Measuring the body composition of preterm and term neonates: from research to clinical applications. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2007;45(suppl 3): S159-S162.
  28. Brozek J, Grande F, Anderson JT, Keys A: Densitometric analysis of body composition: revision of some quantitative assumptions. Ann NY Acad Sci 1963;110:113-140.
  29. ud Din Z, Emmett P, Steer C, Emond A: Growth outcomes of weight faltering in infancy in ALSPAC. Pediatrics 2013;131:e843-e849.
  30. Hawkes CP, Hourihane JO, Kenny LC, Irvine AD, Kiely M, Murray DM: Gender- and gestational age-specific body fat percentage at birth. Pediatrics 2011;128:e645-e651.
  31. Cole TJ: Weight/heightp compared to weight/height2 for assessing adiposity in childhood: influence of age and bone age on p during puberty. Ann Hum Biol 1986;13:433-451.
  32. Benn RT: Some mathematical properties of weight-for-height indices used as measures of adiposity. Br J Prev Soc Med 1971;25:42-50.
  33. Cole TJ: The LMS method for constructing normalized growth standards. Eur J Clin Nutr 1990;44:45-60.
    External Resources
  34. Cole TJ, Green PJ: Smoothing reference centile curves: the LMS method and penalized likelihood. Stat Med 1992;11:1305-1319.
  35. World Health Organization: WHO Child Growth Standards: Head Circumference-for-Age, Arm Circumference-for-Age, Triceps Skinfold-for-Age and Subscapular Skinfold-for-Age : Methods and Development. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2007.
  36. Vidmar SI, Cole TJ, Pan H: Standardizing anthropometric measures in children and adolescents with functions for egen: update. STATA J 2013;13:366-378.
  37. Carberry AE, Colditz PB, Lingwood BE: Body composition from birth to 4.5 months in infants born to non-obese women. Pediatr Res 2010;68:84-88.
  38. Gianni ML, Roggero P, Morlacchi L, Garavaglia E, Piemontese P, Mosca F: Formula-fed infants have significantly higher fat-free mass content in their bodies than breastfed babies. Acta Paediatr 2014;103:e277-e281.
  39. Wohlfahrt-Veje C, Tinggaard J, Winther K, Mouritsen A, Hagen CP, Mieritz MG, de Renzy-Martin KT, Boas M, Petersen JH, Main KM: Body fat throughout childhood in 2647 healthy Danish children: agreement of BMI, waist circumference, skinfolds with dual X-ray absorptiometry. Eur J Clin Nutr 2014;68:664-670.
  40. Barker DJ, Osmond C, Law CM: The intrauterine and early postnatal origins of cardiovascular disease and chronic bronchitis. J Epidemiol Community Health 1989;43:237-240.
  41. Eriksson JG, Forsen T, Tuomilehto J, Osmond C, Barker DJ: Early growth and coronary heart disease in later life: longitudinal study. BMJ 2001;322:949-953.
  42. Eriksson JG, Forsen T, Tuomilehto J, Winter PD, Osmond C, Barker DJ: Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. BMJ 1999;318:427-431.
  43. Ong KK: Catch-up growth in small for gestational age babies: good or bad? Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2007;14:30-34.
  44. Ibanez L, Ong K, Dunger DB, de Zegher F: Early development of adiposity and insulin resistance after catch-up weight gain in small-for-gestational-age children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91:2153-2158.
  45. Mericq V, Ong KK, Bazaes R, Pena V, Avila A, Salazar T, Soto N, Iniguez G, Dunger DB: Longitudinal changes in insulin sensitivity and secretion from birth to age three years in small- and appropriate-for-gestational-age children. Diabetologia 2005;48:2609-2614.
  46. Guo SS, Chumlea WC: Tracking of body mass index in children in relation to overweight in adulthood. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:145S-148S.
    External Resources
  47. Au CP, Raynes-Greenow CH, Turner RM, Carberry AE, Jeffery H: Fetal and maternal factors associated with neonatal adiposity as measured by air displacement plethysmography: a large cross-sectional study. Early Hum Dev 2013;89:839-843.
  48. Simon L, Borrego P, Darmaun D, Legrand A, Roze JC, Chauty-Frondas A: Effect of sex and gestational age on neonatal body composition. Br J Nutr 2013;109:1105-1108.
  49. Deierlein AL, Thornton J, Hull H, Paley C, Gallagher D: An anthropometric model to estimate neonatal fat mass using air displacement plethysmography. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2012;9:21.
  50. Roggero P, Gianni ML, Amato O, Orsi A, Piemontese P, Morlacchi L, Mosca F: Is term newborn body composition being achieved postnatally in preterm infants? Early Hum Dev 2009;85:349-352.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: April 19, 2016
Accepted: July 21, 2016
Published online: August 25, 2016
Issue release date: October 2016

Number of Print Pages: 10
Number of Figures: 3
Number of Tables: 4

ISSN: 1663-2818 (Print)
eISSN: 1663-2826 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/HRP


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.