Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Clinical Thyroidology / Original Paper

Free Access

Pregnant Greek Women May Have a Higher Prevalence of Iodine Deficiency than the General Greek Population

Koukkou E.G.a · Ilias I.a · Mamalis I.b · Markou K.B.b

Author affiliations

aEndocrine Unit, E Venizelou Hospital, Athens, and bDivision of Endocrinology, University Medical School, University Hospital, Rion-Patras, Greece

Corresponding Author

Kostas B. Markou

6 Thisseos Street

GR-26500 Ovria Patras (Greece)

E-Mail markoukonst@upatras.gr

Related Articles for ""

Eur Thyroid J 2017;6:26-30

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information












By signing up for MyKarger you will automatically participate in our year-End raffle.
If you Then Do Not wish To participate, please uncheck the following box.

Yes, I wish To participate In the year-End raffle And Get the chance To win some Of our most interesting books, And other attractive prizes.


I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Abstract

Background: Adequate dietary iodine consumption, predicted via the urinary iodine concentration (UIC), is necessary for normal thyroid function and for the neurodevelopment of fetuses and neonates. The general population of Greece is considered to be iodine sufficient, but our preliminary findings suggest that Greek pregnant women are at risk of iodine deficiency. Objective: Our aim was to estimate the thyroid function and UIC in a representative population of pregnant Greek women. Methods: UIC and thyroid function were assessed in 1,118 women from 19 representative areas of the country. Results: The median UIC was found to be 127.1 µg/l (range 7.8-2,296), which is indicative of insufficient iodine intake according to the standard of the World Health Organization (WHO) for pregnant women. The median UIC was below the minimal recommended value of 150 µg/l in 61% of the women, and below 100 or 50 µg/l in 32 and 7%, respectively. An optimal iodine intake (150-250 µg/l) was observed in 26%, and was over the cut-off of 500 µg/l in 2% of the subjects. Serum thyrotropin significantly increased between trimesters, from 1.57 ± 1.2, to 1.68 ± 1.0 and to 2.02 ± 1.2 mU/l (p < 0.001). Serum-free thyroxine decreased significantly between trimesters, from 1.22 ± 0.34, to 1.01 ± 0.21 and 0.96 ± 0.2 ng/ml (p < 0.05). Serum thyroglobulin levels remained unchanged over the trimesters and were not correlated with UIC. Conclusions: While the general population of Greece is iodine sufficient, these findings suggest that, according to the WHO, the majority of pregnant Greek women are iodine deficient. These data strongly suggest that a proactive policy should be developed to lower iodine deficiency risk in this population of women.

© 2016 European Thyroid Association Published by S. Karger AG, Basel


References

  1. Glinoer D: Iodine nutrition requirements during pregnancy. Thyroid 2006;16:947-948.
  2. Glinoer D: The regulation of thyroid function during normal pregnancy: importance of the iodine nutrition status. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;18:133-152.
  3. Younes-Rapozo V, Berendonk J, Savignon T, Manhaes AC, Barradas PC: Thyroid hormone deficiency changes the distribution of oligodendrocyte/myelin markers during oligodendroglial differentiation in vitro. Int J Dev Neurosci 2006;24:445-453.
  4. De Escobar GM, Obregon MJ, Del Rey FE: Iodine deficiency and brain development in the first half of pregnancy. Public Health Nutr 2007;10:1554-1570.
  5. Zimmermann MB: Iodine deficiency. Endocr Rev 2009;30:376-408.
  6. Bath SC, Rayman MP: A review of the iodine status of UK pregnant women and its implications for the offspring. Environ Geochem Health 2015;37:619-629.
  7. Hynes KL, Otahal P, Hay I, Burgess JR: Mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy is associated with reduced educational outcomes in the offspring: 9-year follow-up of the gestational iodine cohort. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013;98:1954-1962.
  8. Koutras DA, Alevizaki M, Tsatsoulis A, Vagenakis AG: Greece is iodine sufficient. Lancet 2003;362:405-406.
  9. Pearce EN, Alexiou M, Koukkou E, Braverman LE, He X, Ilias I, Alevizaki M, Markou KB: Perchlorate and thiocyanate exposure and thyroid function in first-trimester pregnant women from Greece. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2012;77:471-474.
  10. Koukkou E, Ilias I, Mamali I, Adonakis G, Kravaritis S, Markou K: In a mildly iodine deficient pregnant population serum Tg concentration is a weak indicator of iodine status. Eur Thyroid J 2014;3(suppl 1):173-218.
  11. Dunn JT, Crutchfield HE, Gutekunst R, Dunn AD: Two simple methods for measuring iodine in urine. Thyroid 1993;3:119-123.
  12. Smyth PP, Burns R, Huang RJ, Hoffman T, Mullan K, Graham U, Seitz K, Platt U, O'Dowd C: Does iodine gas released from seaweed contribute to dietary iodine intake? Environ Geochem Health 2011;33:389-397.
  13. Zimmermann MB, Andersson M: Assessment of iodine nutrition in populations: past, present, and future. Nutr Rev 2012;70:553-570.
  14. Ristic-Medic D, Piskackova Z, Hooper L, Ruprich J, Casgrain A, Ashton K, Pavlovic M, Glibetic M: Methods of assessment of iodine status in humans: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:2052S-2069S.
  15. Soldin OP, Tractenberg RE, Hollowell JG, Jonklaas J, Janicic N, Soldin SJ: Trimester-specific changes in maternal thyroid hormone, thyrotropin, and thyroglobulin concentrations during gestation: trends and associations across trimesters in iodine sufficiency. Thyroid 2004;14:1084-1090.
  16. Fantz CR, Dagogo-Jack S, Ladenson JH, Gronowski AM: Thyroid function during pregnancy. Clin Chem 1999;45:2250-2258.
  17. Liesenkötter KP, Göpel W, Bogner U, Stach B, Grüters A: Earliest prevention of endemic goiter by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Eur J Endocrinol 1996;134:443-448.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Clinical Thyroidology / Original Paper

Received: May 10, 2016
Accepted: August 18, 2016
Published online: September 28, 2016
Issue release date: February 2017

Number of Print Pages: 5
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 3

ISSN: 2235-0640 (Print)
eISSN: 2235-0802 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/ETJ


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.