Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or OpenAthens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Short Communication

Editor's Choice - Free Access

Rapid Decrease in Populations of Wild Ring-Tailed Lemurs (Lemur catta) in Madagascar

LaFleur M.a · Clarke T.A.b · Reuter K.c · Schaeffer T.d

Author affiliations

aDepartment of Anthropology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, and bEvolutionary Anthropology Department, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; cAfrica Field Division, Conservation International, and dIndependent Consultant (pro bono), Nairobi, Kenya

Corresponding Author

Marni LaFleur

Department of Anthropology

University of California San Diego

Campus Box 0532, La Jolla, CA 92093 (USA)

E-Mail marni.lafleur@gmail.com

Related Articles for ""

Folia Primatol 2016;87:320-330

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Abstract

Lemurs are the most threatened group of mammals on earth. Lemur catta (ring-tailed lemur) represents one of the most iconic lemur species and faces numerous anthropogenic threats in the wild. In this study, we present population estimates from 32 sites across the range of L. catta, collected from primary and secondary data sources, to assess the number of ring-tailed lemurs left in the wild. We estimate that there are approximately 2,220 individual L. catta remaining in the 32 sites considered. We note local extinctions of populations of L. catta in at least 12 of the 32 sites examined, and that significantly more extinctions occurred in areas without some form of protection. This decrease in extant populations could represent a decrease of more than 95% of all ring-tailed lemurs in Madagascar since the year 2000. While these results should be considered preliminary, we stress the rapid decline of the species and note that habitat loss, bushmeat hunting and the illegal pet trade are driving populations to local extinction. Based on the data presented here, urgent and immediate funding and conservation action are crucial to ensure the viability of the remaining wild populations of ring-tailed lemurs.

© 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel


References

  1. Andriaholinirina N, Baden A, Blanco M, Chikhi L, Cooke A, Davies N, Dolch R, Donati G, Ganzhorn J, Golden C, Groeneveld LF, Hapke A, Irwin M, Johnson S, Kappeler P, King T, Lewis R, Louis EE, Markolf M, Mass V, Mittermeier RA, Nichols R, Patel E, Rabarivola CJ, Raharivololona B, Rajaobelina S, Rakotoarisoa G, et al. (2014). Lemur catta. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T11496A62260437.
    External Resources
  2. Brinkmann K, Noromiarilanto F, Ratovonamana RY, Buerkert A (2014). Deforestation processes in south-western Madagascar over the past 40 years: what can we learn from settlement characteristics? Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 195: 231-243.
    External Resources
  3. Brimont L, Ezzine-de-Blas D, Karsenty A, Toulon A (2015). Achieving conservation and equity amidst extreme poverty and climate risk: the Makira REDD+ project in Madagascar. Forests 6: 748-768.
    External Resources
  4. Brown JL, Yoder AD (2015). Shifting ranges and conservation challenges for lemurs in the face of climate change. Ecology and Evolution 5: 1131-1142.
  5. Ceballos G, Ehrlich PR (2002). Mammal population losses and the extinction crisis. Science 296: 904-907.
  6. Clarke TA, Gray O, Gould L, Burrell AS (2015). Genetic diversity of the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) in south-central Madagascar. Folia Primatologica 86: 76-84.
  7. Dimilahy L, Foulon C, Mhia P, Rahanitriniaina O, Andrianarimalala V, Fenomanana R, Randrianady J, Ratovolala M, Sehenomalala C, Walker-Bolton A, Tahirisoa R, Rafenoarisoa F, Soppelsa J, Randrianirina T, Trapon D, Ravahatramanan-Jarasoa FN (2015). Livret de recensement 2015 Lemur catta, Réserve Privée de Berenty 1936-2015. Unpublished report.
  8. Estrada A (2013). Socioeconomic context of primate conservation: population, poverty, global economic demands and sustainable land use. American Journal of Primatology 75: 30-45.
  9. Gardner CJ, Davies ZG (2014). Rural bushmeat consumption within multiple-use protected areas: qualitative evidence from southwest Madagascar. Human Ecology 42: 21-34.
    External Resources
  10. Gese EM (2001). Monitoring of terrestrial carnivore populations. USDA National Wildlife Research Center Publication No 576. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/icwdm_usdanwrc/576.
  11. Gilles H, Reuter KE (2014). The presence of diurnal lemurs and human-lemur interactions within the buffer zone of the Ankarana National Park. Lemur News 18: 27-30.
  12. Goodman S (2003). Hunting of wild animals by Sakalava of the Menabe region: a field report from Kirindy-Mite. Lemur News 8: 4-6.
  13. Goodman SM, Rakotoarisoa SV, Wilmé L (2006). The distribution and biogeography of the ringtailed lemur (Lemur catta) in Madagascar. In Ringtailed Lemur Biology (Jolly A, Sussman RW, Koyama N, Rasamimanana H, eds.), pp 3-15. New York, Springer.
    External Resources
  14. Gould L, Andrianomena P (2015). Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), forest fragments, and community-level conservation in south-central Madagascar. Primate Conservation 29: 67-73.
    External Resources
  15. Gould L, Sussman RW, Sauther ML (1999). Natural disasters and primate populations: the effects of a 2-year drought on a naturally occurring population of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) in southwestern Madagascar. International Journal of Primatology 20: 69-84.
    External Resources
  16. Hawkins A (1999). The primates of Isalo National Park, Madagascar. Lemur News 4: 11-14.
  17. Irwin MT, Samonds KE, Raharison JL, Wright PC (2004). Lemur latrines: observations of latrine behavior in wild primates and possible ecological significance. Journal of Mammalogy 85: 420-427.
    External Resources
  18. Irwin MT, Johnson SE, Wright PC (2005). The state of lemur conservation in southeastern Madagascar: population and habitat assessments for diurnal and cathemeral lemurs using surveys, satellite imagery and GIS. Oryx 39: 204-218.
    External Resources
  19. IUCN (2016). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. http://www.iucnredlist.org (accessed June 30, 2016).
  20. IUCN/SSC (2013). Guidelines for Reintroductions and Other Conservation Translocations. Version 1.0. Gland, IUCN Species Survival Commission.
  21. Kelley EA (2013). The ranging behavior of Lemur catta in the region of Cap Sainte-Marie, Madagascar. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 150: 122-132.
  22. Kelley EA, Sussman RW, Muldoon KM (2007). The status of lemur species and Antserananomby: an update. Primate Conservation 11: 71-77.
    External Resources
  23. LaFleur M, Clarke T, Giraud L, Youssouf J, Gould L, Adiba M (2015). Reniala Lemur Rescue Center for ring-tailed lemurs in Madagascar. Lemur News 19: 11-13.
  24. Leighty KA, Valuska AJ, Grand AP, Bettinger TL, Mellen JD, Ross SR, Boyle P, Ogden JJ (2015). Impact of visual context on public perceptions of non-human primate performers. PLoS One 10: e0118487.
  25. Macdonald DW, Mace GM, Barreto GR (1999). The effects of predators on fragmented prey populations: a case study for the conservation of endangered prey. Journal of Zoology 247: 487-506.
    External Resources
  26. Malone M, Ramanamanjato JB, Randriatfika F, Donati G (2013). Habitat structure and grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) abundance in the transitional littoral forest of Petriky, south-east Madagascar. Lemur News 17: 22-26.
  27. Moniac N, Heitmann A (2007). Lemur catta and hunting around Andohahela. Lemur News 12: 11.
  28. Naughton-Treves L, Holland MB, Brandon K (2005). The role of protected areas in conserving biodiversity and sustaining local livelihoods. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 30: 219-252.
    External Resources
  29. Nekaris KAI, Musing L, Vazquez AG, Donati G (2016). Is tickling torture? Assessing welfare towards slow lorises (Nycticebus spp.) within web 2.0 videos. Folia Primatologica 86: 534-551.
  30. Plumptre AJ, Cox D (2006). Counting primates for conservation: primate surveys in Uganda. Primates 47: 65-73.
  31. Pusey A, Pintea L, Wilson ML, Kamenya S, Goodall J (2007). The contribution of long-term research at Gombe National Park to chimpanzee conservation. Conservation Biology 21: 623-634.
  32. Rakotoarisoa SV (1999). Contribution à l'étude de l'adaptation de Lemur catta Linnaeus, 1758, aux zones sommitales de la Réserve Naturelle d'Andringitra. Mémoire DEA, Université d'Antananarivo.
  33. Razafindramanana J (2011). Behavioural Ecology of Sympatric Lemur Species Lemur catta and Eulemur sp. in Forest Fragments, South-Eastern Madagascar. Doctoral dissertation, Oxford Brookes University.
  34. Reuter KE, Schaefer MS (in press). Motivations for the ownership of captive lemurs in Madagascar. Anthrozoos.
  35. Reuter KE, Schaefer MS (2016). Illegal captive lemurs in Madagascar: comparing the use of online and in-person data collection methods. American Journal of Primatology DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22541.
  36. Reuter KE, Schaefer MS (2016). Captive conditions of pet lemurs in Madagascar. Folia Primatologica 87: 48-63.
  37. Reuter KE, Gilles H, Wills AR, Sewall BJ (2016). Live capture and ownership of pet lemurs in Madagascar: extent and conservation implications. Oryx 40: 344-354.
    External Resources
  38. Sauther ML, Sussman RW, Gould L (1999). The socioecology of the ring-tailed lemur: thirty-five years of research. Evolutionary Anthropology 8: 102-132.
  39. Schwitzer C, Mittermeier RA, Davies N, Johnson S, Ratsimbazafy J, Razafindramanana J, Louis EE Jr, Rajaobelina S (eds.) (2013). Lemurs of Madagascar: A Strategy for their Conservation 2013-2016. Bristol, IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group, Bristol Conservation and Science Foundation, and Conservation International.
  40. Schwitzer C, Mittermeier RA, Johnson SE, Ratsimbazafy J, Razafindramanana J, Louis EE, Chikhi L, Colquhoun IC, Crick J, Dolch R, Donati G, Irwin M, LaFleur M, Nash S, Patel E, Peacock H, Randrianambinina B, Rasolofoharivelo T, Wright P (2014). Averting lemur extinctions amid Madagascar's political crisis. Science 343: 842-843.
  41. Siers RS (2007). Research experience in Vohibasia Forest, southwestern Madagaskar. Lemur News 12: 42-43.
  42. Sussman RW, Green GM, Porton I, Andrianasolondraibe OL, Ratsirarson J (2003). A survey of the habitat of Lemur catta in southwestern and southern Madagascar. Primate Conservation 19: 1631.
  43. Sussman RW, Sweeney S, Green GM, Porton I, Andrianasolondraibe OL, Ratsirarson J (2006). A preliminary estimate of Lemur catta population density using satellite imagery. In Ringtailed Lemur Biology (Jolly A, Sussman RW, Koyama N, Rasamimanana H, eds.), pp 16-31. New York, Springer.
    External Resources

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Short Communication

Received: August 29, 2016
Accepted: December 14, 2016
Published online: January 13, 2017
Issue release date: January 2017

Number of Print Pages: 11
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 0015-5713 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9980 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/FPR

References

  1. Andriaholinirina N, Baden A, Blanco M, Chikhi L, Cooke A, Davies N, Dolch R, Donati G, Ganzhorn J, Golden C, Groeneveld LF, Hapke A, Irwin M, Johnson S, Kappeler P, King T, Lewis R, Louis EE, Markolf M, Mass V, Mittermeier RA, Nichols R, Patel E, Rabarivola CJ, Raharivololona B, Rajaobelina S, Rakotoarisoa G, et al. (2014). Lemur catta. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T11496A62260437.
    External Resources
  2. Brinkmann K, Noromiarilanto F, Ratovonamana RY, Buerkert A (2014). Deforestation processes in south-western Madagascar over the past 40 years: what can we learn from settlement characteristics? Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 195: 231-243.
    External Resources
  3. Brimont L, Ezzine-de-Blas D, Karsenty A, Toulon A (2015). Achieving conservation and equity amidst extreme poverty and climate risk: the Makira REDD+ project in Madagascar. Forests 6: 748-768.
    External Resources
  4. Brown JL, Yoder AD (2015). Shifting ranges and conservation challenges for lemurs in the face of climate change. Ecology and Evolution 5: 1131-1142.
  5. Ceballos G, Ehrlich PR (2002). Mammal population losses and the extinction crisis. Science 296: 904-907.
  6. Clarke TA, Gray O, Gould L, Burrell AS (2015). Genetic diversity of the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) in south-central Madagascar. Folia Primatologica 86: 76-84.
  7. Dimilahy L, Foulon C, Mhia P, Rahanitriniaina O, Andrianarimalala V, Fenomanana R, Randrianady J, Ratovolala M, Sehenomalala C, Walker-Bolton A, Tahirisoa R, Rafenoarisoa F, Soppelsa J, Randrianirina T, Trapon D, Ravahatramanan-Jarasoa FN (2015). Livret de recensement 2015 Lemur catta, Réserve Privée de Berenty 1936-2015. Unpublished report.
  8. Estrada A (2013). Socioeconomic context of primate conservation: population, poverty, global economic demands and sustainable land use. American Journal of Primatology 75: 30-45.
  9. Gardner CJ, Davies ZG (2014). Rural bushmeat consumption within multiple-use protected areas: qualitative evidence from southwest Madagascar. Human Ecology 42: 21-34.
    External Resources
  10. Gese EM (2001). Monitoring of terrestrial carnivore populations. USDA National Wildlife Research Center Publication No 576. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/icwdm_usdanwrc/576.
  11. Gilles H, Reuter KE (2014). The presence of diurnal lemurs and human-lemur interactions within the buffer zone of the Ankarana National Park. Lemur News 18: 27-30.
  12. Goodman S (2003). Hunting of wild animals by Sakalava of the Menabe region: a field report from Kirindy-Mite. Lemur News 8: 4-6.
  13. Goodman SM, Rakotoarisoa SV, Wilmé L (2006). The distribution and biogeography of the ringtailed lemur (Lemur catta) in Madagascar. In Ringtailed Lemur Biology (Jolly A, Sussman RW, Koyama N, Rasamimanana H, eds.), pp 3-15. New York, Springer.
    External Resources
  14. Gould L, Andrianomena P (2015). Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), forest fragments, and community-level conservation in south-central Madagascar. Primate Conservation 29: 67-73.
    External Resources
  15. Gould L, Sussman RW, Sauther ML (1999). Natural disasters and primate populations: the effects of a 2-year drought on a naturally occurring population of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) in southwestern Madagascar. International Journal of Primatology 20: 69-84.
    External Resources
  16. Hawkins A (1999). The primates of Isalo National Park, Madagascar. Lemur News 4: 11-14.
  17. Irwin MT, Samonds KE, Raharison JL, Wright PC (2004). Lemur latrines: observations of latrine behavior in wild primates and possible ecological significance. Journal of Mammalogy 85: 420-427.
    External Resources
  18. Irwin MT, Johnson SE, Wright PC (2005). The state of lemur conservation in southeastern Madagascar: population and habitat assessments for diurnal and cathemeral lemurs using surveys, satellite imagery and GIS. Oryx 39: 204-218.
    External Resources
  19. IUCN (2016). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. http://www.iucnredlist.org (accessed June 30, 2016).
  20. IUCN/SSC (2013). Guidelines for Reintroductions and Other Conservation Translocations. Version 1.0. Gland, IUCN Species Survival Commission.
  21. Kelley EA (2013). The ranging behavior of Lemur catta in the region of Cap Sainte-Marie, Madagascar. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 150: 122-132.
  22. Kelley EA, Sussman RW, Muldoon KM (2007). The status of lemur species and Antserananomby: an update. Primate Conservation 11: 71-77.
    External Resources
  23. LaFleur M, Clarke T, Giraud L, Youssouf J, Gould L, Adiba M (2015). Reniala Lemur Rescue Center for ring-tailed lemurs in Madagascar. Lemur News 19: 11-13.
  24. Leighty KA, Valuska AJ, Grand AP, Bettinger TL, Mellen JD, Ross SR, Boyle P, Ogden JJ (2015). Impact of visual context on public perceptions of non-human primate performers. PLoS One 10: e0118487.
  25. Macdonald DW, Mace GM, Barreto GR (1999). The effects of predators on fragmented prey populations: a case study for the conservation of endangered prey. Journal of Zoology 247: 487-506.
    External Resources
  26. Malone M, Ramanamanjato JB, Randriatfika F, Donati G (2013). Habitat structure and grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) abundance in the transitional littoral forest of Petriky, south-east Madagascar. Lemur News 17: 22-26.
  27. Moniac N, Heitmann A (2007). Lemur catta and hunting around Andohahela. Lemur News 12: 11.
  28. Naughton-Treves L, Holland MB, Brandon K (2005). The role of protected areas in conserving biodiversity and sustaining local livelihoods. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 30: 219-252.
    External Resources
  29. Nekaris KAI, Musing L, Vazquez AG, Donati G (2016). Is tickling torture? Assessing welfare towards slow lorises (Nycticebus spp.) within web 2.0 videos. Folia Primatologica 86: 534-551.
  30. Plumptre AJ, Cox D (2006). Counting primates for conservation: primate surveys in Uganda. Primates 47: 65-73.
  31. Pusey A, Pintea L, Wilson ML, Kamenya S, Goodall J (2007). The contribution of long-term research at Gombe National Park to chimpanzee conservation. Conservation Biology 21: 623-634.
  32. Rakotoarisoa SV (1999). Contribution à l'étude de l'adaptation de Lemur catta Linnaeus, 1758, aux zones sommitales de la Réserve Naturelle d'Andringitra. Mémoire DEA, Université d'Antananarivo.
  33. Razafindramanana J (2011). Behavioural Ecology of Sympatric Lemur Species Lemur catta and Eulemur sp. in Forest Fragments, South-Eastern Madagascar. Doctoral dissertation, Oxford Brookes University.
  34. Reuter KE, Schaefer MS (in press). Motivations for the ownership of captive lemurs in Madagascar. Anthrozoos.
  35. Reuter KE, Schaefer MS (2016). Illegal captive lemurs in Madagascar: comparing the use of online and in-person data collection methods. American Journal of Primatology DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22541.
  36. Reuter KE, Schaefer MS (2016). Captive conditions of pet lemurs in Madagascar. Folia Primatologica 87: 48-63.
  37. Reuter KE, Gilles H, Wills AR, Sewall BJ (2016). Live capture and ownership of pet lemurs in Madagascar: extent and conservation implications. Oryx 40: 344-354.
    External Resources
  38. Sauther ML, Sussman RW, Gould L (1999). The socioecology of the ring-tailed lemur: thirty-five years of research. Evolutionary Anthropology 8: 102-132.
  39. Schwitzer C, Mittermeier RA, Davies N, Johnson S, Ratsimbazafy J, Razafindramanana J, Louis EE Jr, Rajaobelina S (eds.) (2013). Lemurs of Madagascar: A Strategy for their Conservation 2013-2016. Bristol, IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group, Bristol Conservation and Science Foundation, and Conservation International.
  40. Schwitzer C, Mittermeier RA, Johnson SE, Ratsimbazafy J, Razafindramanana J, Louis EE, Chikhi L, Colquhoun IC, Crick J, Dolch R, Donati G, Irwin M, LaFleur M, Nash S, Patel E, Peacock H, Randrianambinina B, Rasolofoharivelo T, Wright P (2014). Averting lemur extinctions amid Madagascar's political crisis. Science 343: 842-843.
  41. Siers RS (2007). Research experience in Vohibasia Forest, southwestern Madagaskar. Lemur News 12: 42-43.
  42. Sussman RW, Green GM, Porton I, Andrianasolondraibe OL, Ratsirarson J (2003). A survey of the habitat of Lemur catta in southwestern and southern Madagascar. Primate Conservation 19: 1631.
  43. Sussman RW, Sweeney S, Green GM, Porton I, Andrianasolondraibe OL, Ratsirarson J (2006). A preliminary estimate of Lemur catta population density using satellite imagery. In Ringtailed Lemur Biology (Jolly A, Sussman RW, Koyama N, Rasamimanana H, eds.), pp 16-31. New York, Springer.
    External Resources
ppt logo Download Images (.pptx)


Figures
Thumbnail

Tables
Thumbnail

Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.