Original Research Article
Delayed Dispersal and Immigration in Equatorial Sakis (Pithecia aequatorialis): Factors in the Transition from Pair- to Group-LivingPorter A.M.a · Grote M.N.a · Isbell L.A.a, b · Fernandez-Duque E.c, f · Di Fiore A.d, e
aDepartment of Anthropology and bAnimal Behavior Graduate Group, University of California, Davis, CA, cDepartment of Anthropology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, dDepartment of Anthropology, University of Austin at Texas, Austin, TX, and eCenter for the Study of Human Origins, Department of Anthropology, New York University, New York, NY, USA; fFacultad de Recursos Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Formosa, Formosa, Argentina
Lynne A. Isbell
Department of Anthropology, University of California
One Shields Ave.
Davis, CA 95616 (USA)
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Saki monkeys (Pithecia spp.) live in pairs and small groups, sometimes with more than 1 same-sex adult. Previous studies have not been able to distinguish additional, unrelated adults from adult-sized offspring, but both can influence social relationships and mating strategies, albeit in different ways. In this study, we documented the immigration of an adult male equatorial saki (P. aequatorialis) into a group following the departure of the previous resident male. At immigration, the group contained an adult female, her 5-year-old (adult age) and 1.5-year-old daughters, and her 1-month-old infant. We used nearest neighbor, approach, grooming, playing, aggression, and copulation data to describe the social dynamics between the immigrant male and the 2 adult females. In the 12 months following his arrival, the immigrant male tended to be closer to and groom the adult daughter more than the mother, but he mated with both females. Both females interacted more with the immigrant male than with each other, and both females eventually reproduced. These observations provide evidence that in equatorial sakis, adult offspring may delay dispersal and reproduce within their natal group, thus transitioning from groups of reproductive pairs to groups with more than 1 reproductive adult of the same sex.
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