Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Original Article

Open Access Gateway

Effect of Restriction of Foods with High Fructose Corn Syrup Content on Metabolic Indices and Fatty Liver in Obese Children

Ibarra-Reynoso L. del R. · López-Lemus H.L. · Garay-Sevilla M.E. · Malacara J.M.

Author affiliations

Department of Medical Sciences, University of Guanajuato, Campus León, León, Mexico

Corresponding Author

Lorena del Rocío Ibarra-Reynoso

Department of Medical Sciences

University of Guanajuato, Campus León

20 de Enero 929, 37320 León, Mexico

rey221280@gmail.com

Related Articles for ""

Obes Facts 2017;10:332-340

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information










I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Abstract

Objective: We examined the effect of restriction of foods with high fructose content in obese school children. Methods: In a clinical study, we selected 54 obese children 6 to 11 years old with high fructose consumption (>70 g/day) in order indicate dietary fructose restriction (<20 g/day) for 6 weeks. Anthropometry, liver ultrasound as well as glucose, insulin, lipids, leptin, IGFBP1, and RBP4 serum levels were collected. Results: The group of children had 80% adherence and reported decreased fructose consumption (110 ± 38.6 to 11.4 ± 12.0 g/day) and also a significant decrease in caloric (2,384 ± 568 to 1,757 ± 387 kcal/day) and carbohydrate consumption (302 ± 80.4 to 203 ± 56.0 g/day). The severity of steatosis improved significantly after fructose restriction (p < 0.000001). However, no changes in BMI, systolic blood pressure, or diastolic blood pressure were found. Only triglyceride levels decreased (1.44 ± 0.43 to 1.31 ± 0.38 mmol/l), High-densitiy lipoprotein cholesterol showed a marginal increase (1.45 ± 0.19 to 1.56 ± 0.44 mmol/l). Insulin resistance and RBP4 did not change. Conclusions: In school children, the restriction of high fructose foods with a decrease of caloric and carbohydrate intake at 6 weeks did not induce weight loss; however, triglyceride levels and hepatic steatosis decreased. Differences with other studies in regard to weight loss may be explained by adaptive changes on metabolic expenditure.

© 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg


References

  1. Bray GA, Nielsen SJ, Popkin BM: Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:537-543.
    External Resources
  2. Stanhope KL, Schwarz JM, Keim NL, Griffen SC, Bremer AA, Graham JL, Hatcher B, Cox CL, Dyachenko A, Zhang W, McGahan JP, Seibert A, Krauss RM, Chiu S, Schaefer EJ, Ai M, Otokozawa S, Nakajima K, Nakano T, Beysen C, Hellerstein MK, Berglund L, Havel PJ: Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans. J Clin Invest 2009;119:1322-1334.
  3. Stanhope KL, Havel PJ: Fructose consumption: potential mechanisms for its effects to increase visceral adiposity and induce dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Curr Opin Lipidol 2008;19:16-24.
  4. Jin R, Le NA, Liu S, Farkas Epperson M, Ziegler TR, Welsh JA, Jones DP, McClain CJ, Vos MB: Children with NAFLD are more sensitive to the adverse metabolic effects of fructose beverages than children without NAFLD. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97:E1088-1098.
  5. Brown CM, Dulloo AG, Yepuri G, Montani JP: Fructose ingestion acutely elevates blood pressure in healthy young humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2008;294:730-737.
  6. Thuy S, Ladurner R, Volynets V, Wagner S, Strahl S, Königsrainer, Maier KP, Bischoff SC, Bergheim I: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in humans is associated with increased plasma endotoxin and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 concentrations and with fructose intake. J Nutr 2008;138:1452-1455.
    External Resources
  7. Abdelmalek MF, Lazo M, Horska A, Bonekamp S, Lipkin EW, Balasubramanyam A, Bantle JP, Johnson RJ, Diehl AM, Clark JM: Higher dietary fructose is associated with impaired hepatic adenosine triphosphate homeostasis in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Hepatology 2012;56:952-960.
  8. Neuschwander-Tetri BA: Carbohydrate intake and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2013;16:446-452.
  9. Lonardo A, Bellentani S, Ratziu V, Loria P: Insulin resistance in non-alcoholicsteatohepatitis: necessary but not sufficient - death of a dogma from analysis of therapeutic studies? Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011;5:279-289.
  10. Goyal NP, Schwimmer JB: The progression and natural history of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Liver Dis 2016;20:325-338.
  11. Schwimmer J, Deutsch R, Kahen T, Lavine J, Stanley C, Behling C: Prevalence of fatty liver in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 2006;118:1388-1393.
  12. Kotronen A, Lewitt M, Hall K, Brismar K, Yki-Jarvinen H: Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 as a novel specific marker of hepatic insulin sensitivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:4867-4872.
  13. Clark JM, Diehl AM: Hepatic steatosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Curr Diab Rep 2002;2:210-215.
  14. Perseghin G, Bonfanti R, Magni S, Lattuada G, De Cobelli F, Canu T, Esposito A, Scifo P, Ntali G, Costantino F, Bosio L, Ragogna F, Del Maschio A, Chiumello G, Luzi L: Insulin resistance and whole body energy homeostasis in obese adolescents with fatty liver disease. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2006;291:697-703.
  15. Crespo M, Lappe S, Feldstein AE, Alkhouri N: Similarities and differences between pediatric and adult nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Metabolism 2016;65:1161-1171.
  16. Kleiner DE, Makhlouf HR: Histology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in adults and children. Clin Liver Dis 2016;20:293-312.
  17. Mencin AA, Loomba R, Lavine JE: Caring for children with NAFLD and navigating their care into adulthood. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015;12:617-628.
  18. Madero M, Arriaga JC, Jalal D, Rivard C, McFann K, Pérez O, Vázquez A, Ruiz A, Lanaspa MA, Jimenez CR, Johnson RJ, Lozada LG: The effect of two energy-restricted diets, a low-fructose diet versus a moderate natural fructose diet, on weight loss and metabolic syndrome parameters: a randomized controlled trial. Metabolism 2011;60:1551-1559.
  19. Madero M, Rodríguez Castellanos FE, Jalal D, Villalobos-Martín M, Salazar J, Vazquez-Rangel A, Johnson RJ, Sánchez-Lozada LG: A pilot study on the impact of a low fructose diet and allopurinol on clinic blood pressure among overweight and prehypertensive subjects: a randomized placebo controlled trial. J Am Soc Hypertens 2015;9:837-844.
  20. Lustig RH, Mulligan K, Noworolski SM, Tai VW, Wen MJ, Erkin-Cakmak A, Gugliucci A, Schwarz J-M: Isocaloric fructose restriction and metabolic improvement in children with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2016;24:453-460.
  21. Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH: Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 2000;320:1240-1243.
  22. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Anthropometry Procedures Manual. 2007. www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes/bm.pdf (last accessed July 25, 2017).
  23. Kurtoğlu S, Hatipoğlu N, Mazıcıoğlu M, Kendirici M, Keskin M, Kondolot M: Insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents: homa-ir cut-off levels in the prepubertal and pubertal periods. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2010;2:100-106.
  24. Saadeh S, Younossi ZM, Remer EM, Gramlich T, Ong JP, Hurley M, Mullen KD, Cooper JN, Sheridan MJ: Utility of radiological imaging in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology 2002;123:745-750.
  25. Mittelstaedt C: General Ultrasound. New York, Churchill Livingstone, 1992.
  26. Matthews RH, Pehrsson PR, Farhat M: Sugar Content of Selected Foods: Individual and Total Sugars. Washington, D.C, United States Department of Agriculture, 1987.
  27. Hernández JE, González L, Rosales E: Sistema de Evaluación de Hábitos Nutricionales y Consumo de Nutrimentos. SNUT. Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública. Centro de Investigación en Salud Poblacional. www.insp.mx/snut2003/ (last accessed July 25, 2017).
  28. Morgan RE: Does consumption of high-fructose corn syrup beverages cause obesity in children? Pediatr Obes 2013;8:249-254.
  29. Tamam S, Bellissimo N, Patel BP, Thomas SG, Anderson GH: Overweight and obese boys reduce food intake in response to a glucose drink but fail to increase intake in response to exercise of short duration. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2012;37:520-529.
  30. André C. Carpentier. Acute adaptation of energy expenditure predicts diet-induced weight loss: revisiting the thrifty phenotype. Diabetes 2015;64:2714-2716.
  31. Ghosh S, Dent R, Harper ME, Stuart J, McPherson R: Blood gene expression reveal pathway differences between diet-sensitive and resistant obese subjects prior to caloric restriction. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2011;19:457-463.
  32. Westerterp KR: Control of energy expenditure in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr 2017;71:340-344.
  33. Rosenbaum M, Knight R, Leibel RL: The gut microbiota in human energy homeostasis and obesity. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2015;26:493-501.
  34. Te Morenga L, Mallard S, Mann J: Dietary sugars and body weight: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. BMJ 2012;346:e7492.
  35. Goran MI, Walker R, Allayee H: Genetic-related and carbohydrate-related factors affecting liver fat accumulation. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2012;15:392-396.
  36. Thompson FE, McNeel TS, Dowling EC, Midthune D, Morrissette M, Zeruto CA: Interrelationships of added sugars intake, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity in adults in the United States: National Health Interview Survey, 2005. J Am Diet Assoc 2009;109:1376-1383.
  37. Hernández-Ríos R, Hernández-Estrada S, Cruz-Robles D, Hernández-Lobato S, Villalobos-Martín M, Johnson RJ, Rodríguez-Castellanos F, Salazar J, García-Arroyo F, Sánchez-Lozada LG, Madero M: Low fructose and low salt diets increase mitochondrial DNA in white blood cells of overweight subjects. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2013;121:535-538.
  38. Campos V, Despland C, Brandejsky V, Kreis R, Schneiter P, Chiolero A, Boesch C, Tappy L: Sugar- and artificially sweetened beverages and intrahepatic fat: a randomized controlled trial. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2015;23:2335-2339.
  39. Jin R, Le NA, Cleeton R, Sun X, Cruz Muños J, Otvos J, Vos MB: Amount of hepatic fat predicts cardiovascular risk independent of insulin resistance among Hispanic-American adolescents. Lipids Health Dis 2015;14:39.
  40. Ibarra-Reynoso LR, Pisarchyk L, Pérez-Luque EL, Garay-Sevilla ME, Malacara JM: Whole body and hepatic insulin resistance in obese children. PLoS One 2014;9:e113576.
  41. Kleiner DE, Makhlouf HR: Histology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in adults and children. Clin Liver Dis 2016;20:293-312.
  42. Promrat K, Kleiner DE, Niemeier HM, Jackvony E, Kearns M, Wands JR, Fava JL, Wing RR: Randomized controlled trial testing the effects of weight loss on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatology 2010;51:121-129.
  43. Volynets V, Machann J, Küper MA, Maier IB, Spruss A, Königsrainer A, Bischoff SC, Bergheim I: A moderate weight reduction through dietary intervention decreases hepatic fat content in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a pilot study. Eur J Nutr 2013;52:527-535.
  44. Siejka A, Jankiewicz-Wika J, Kołomecki K, Cywiński J, Piestrzeniewicz K, Swiętosławski J, Stepien H, Komorowski J: Long-term impact of vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) on plasma concentration of leptin, soluble leptin receptor, ghrelin, omentin-1, obestatin, and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) in patients with severe obesity. Cytokine 2013;64:490-493.
  45. Hassink SG, Sheslow DV, de Lancey E, Opentanova I, Considine RV, Caro JF: Serum leptin in children with obesity: relationship to gender and development. Pediatrics 1996;98:201-203.
    External Resources

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Article

Received: November 02, 2016
Accepted: April 20, 2017
Published online: August 05, 2017
Issue release date: August 2017

Number of Print Pages: 9
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 5

ISSN: 1662-4025 (Print)
eISSN: 1662-4033 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/OFA


Open Access License / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.