Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Original Paper

Acoustic Realization and Inventory Size: Kannada and Malayalam Alveolar/Retroflex Laterals and /ɻ/

Tabain M.a · Kochetov A.b

Author affiliations

aLa Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; bUniversity of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

Related Articles for ""

Phonetica 2018;75:85-109

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information












By signing up for MyKarger you will automatically participate in our year-End raffle.
If you Then Do Not wish To participate, please uncheck the following box.

Yes, I wish To participate In the year-End raffle And Get the chance To win some Of our most interesting books, And other attractive prizes.


I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Login Information





Contact Information












By signing up for MyKarger you will automatically participate in our year-End raffle.
If you Then Do Not wish To participate, please uncheck the following box.

Yes, I wish To participate In the year-End raffle And Get the chance To win some Of our most interesting books, And other attractive prizes.


I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

CHF 38.00 *
EUR 35.00 *
USD 39.00 *

Select

KAB

Buy a Karger Article Bundle (KAB) and profit from a discount!

If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in.


Save over 20% compared to the individual article price.
Learn more

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restrictions apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00


Select

Subscribe

  • Access to all articles of the subscribed year(s) guaranteed for 5 years
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select

* The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: July 19, 2016
Accepted: June 04, 2017
Published online: October 27, 2017
Issue release date: Published online first (Issue-in-Progress)

Number of Print Pages: 25
Number of Figures: 5
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 0031-8388 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0321 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/PHO

Abstract

This study examines formant and spectral moment data for the apical and retroflex lateral sounds /l ɭ/ of the Dravidian languages Kannada and Malayalam, together with the rhotic /ɻ/ of Malayalam. Data are presented for 10 male speakers of each language. We find that the first spectral moment is lower for retroflex laterals than for alveolar laterals, and lower for the rhotic /ɻ/ of Malayalam than for the retroflex lateral in the same language. Differences emerge when the retroflex lateral of Kannada is compared with the same sound in Malayalam. For both languages, F1 is higher and F3 and F4 are lower for the retroflex /ɭ/ than for the alveolar /l/. However, F2 is higher for the retroflex than for the alveolar sound in Kannada, but lower in Malayalam. This difference is also reflected in differences in the second spectral moment between the languages. It is suggested that since proximity of F2 and F3 is known to be a defining feature of the rhotic /ɻ/ in Malayalam, principles of phonetic dispersion apply to keep F2 from becoming too close to F3 for the retroflex lateral /ɭ/ of Malayalam, but not for the same sound in Kannada.

© 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel


References

  1. Andronov MS (1969): The Kannada Language (transl from Russian by V. Korotky). Moscow, Nauka.
  2. Asher RE, Kumari TC (1997): Malayalam. London, Routledge.
  3. Balasubramanian T (1982): Intervocalic double nasal and lateral consonant articulations in Tamil. J Phonet 10:99-104.
  4. Bhat DNS (1973): Retroflexion: an areal feature. Work Pap Lang Univers 13:27-67.
  5. Boersma P, Weenink D (2015): Praat: doing phonetics by computer (computer program). http://www.praat.org/.
  6. Bright W (1958): An Outline of Colloquial Kannada. Monogr Ser No 22. Poona, Deccan College Postgraduate.
  7. Bright W, Rau S, Narvekar M (1960): Spoken Kannada. Berkeley: Center for South Asian Studies, Institute of International Studies, University of California.
  8. Cardona G, Jain D (2003): General introduction. In Cardona G, Jain D (eds): Indo-Aryan Languages. New York, Routledge, pp 1-145.
  9. Carter P (2003): Extrinsic phonetic interpretation: spectral variation in English liquids; in Local J, Ogden R, Temple R (eds): Phonetic Interpretation: Papers in Laboratory Phonology VI. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp 237-252.
  10. Carter P, Local J (2007): F2 variation in Newcastle and Leeds English liquid systems. J Int Phon Assoc 37:183-199.
    External Resources
  11. Dixon RMW (1980): The Languages of Australia. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  12. Fant G (1970): Acoustic Theory of Speech Production, ed 2. The Hague: Mouton.
  13. Forrest K, Weismer G, Milenkovic P, Dougall R (1988): Statistical analysis of word-initial voiceless obstruents: preliminary data. J Acoust Soc Am 84:115-123.
  14. Galecki A, Burzykowski T (2013): Linear Mixed Effects Models Using R. New York, Springer.
  15. Gelman A (2005): Analysis of variance - why it is more important than ever. Ann Stat 33:1-53.
    External Resources
  16. Keane E (2004): Tamil. J Int Phon Assoc 34:111-116.
  17. Kirkham S (2017): Ethnicity and phonetic variation in Sheffield English liquids. J Int Phon Assoc 47:117-135.
    External Resources
  18. Krishnamurti B (2001): Comparative Dravidian Linguistics: Current Perspectives. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  19. Krishnamurti B (2003): The Dravidian Languages. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  20. Kumari SB (1972): Malayalam phonetic reader. Mysore, Central Institute of Indian Languages.
  21. Ladefoged P, Maddieson I (1996): The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford, Blackwell Publishers.
  22. Lindblom B, Maddieson I (1988): Phonetic universals in consonant systems; in Hyman LM, Li CN (eds): Language, Speech and Mind. London, Routledge, pp 62-78.
  23. Local J, Simpson A (1999): Phonetic implementation of geminates in Malayalam nouns. Proc 14th Int Congr Phon Sci, San Francisco, pp 1059-1062.
  24. Maheshwaraiah HM (1986): Spectrographic analysis of liquids in Kannada; in Rajapurohit BB (ed): Acoustic Studies in Indian Languages. Mysore, Central Institute of Indian Languages, pp 55-60.
  25. Manuel SY (1990): The role of contrast in limiting vowel-to-vowel coarticulation in different languages. J Acoust Soc Am 88:1286-1298.
  26. McAlpin DW (1998): Coarticulations and coronals in Malayalam. J Am Orient Soc 118:401-405.
    External Resources
  27. McDonough J, Johnson K (1997): Tamil liquids: an investigation into the basis of the contrast among five liquids in a dialect of Tamil. J Int Phon Assoc 27:1-26.
    External Resources
  28. Moag R, Moag R (1967): A Course in Colloquial Malayalam. Milwaukee, Peace Corps.
  29. Mohanan KP, Mohanan T (1984): Lexical phonology of the consonant system in Malayalam. Linguist Inq 15:575-602.
  30. Nair VS (2011): Kannada-English-Malayalam Trilingual Bidirectional Dictionary, with Bidirectional CD. Mysore, Central Institute of Indian Languages.
  31. Namboodiripad S, Garellek M (2017): Malayalam (Namboodiri Dialect). J Int Phon Assoc 47:109-118.
    External Resources
  32. Nance C (2014): Phonetic variation in Scottish Gaelic laterals. J Phon 47:1-17.
    External Resources
  33. Narayanan S, Byrd D, Kaun A (1999): Geometry, kinematics, and acoustics of Tamil liquid consonants. J Acoust Soc Am 106:1993-2007.
  34. Narayanan S, Kaun A (1999): Acoustic modeling of retroflex consonants. Proc 14th Int Congr Phon Sci, San Francisco, August 1999.Nayak HM (1967): Kannada: Literary and Colloquial: A Study of Two Styles. Mysore, Rao & Raghavan.
  35. Punnoose R (2011): An Auditory and Acoustic Study of Liquids in Malayalam; PhD thesis, Newcastle University.
  36. Punnoose R, Khattab G, al-Tamini J (2013): The contested fifth liquid in Malayalam: a window into the lateralrhotic relationship in Dravidian languages. Phonetica 70:274-297.
  37. R Core Team (2012): R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, R Foundation for Statistical Computing. http://www.R-project.org/ (accessed June 17, 2014).
  38. Ramasubramanian N, Thosar RB (1971): Synthesis by rule of some retroflex speech sounds. Lang Speech 14:65-85.
  39. Recasens D (2012): A cross-language acoustic study of initial and final allophones of /l/. Speech Commun 54:368-383.
    External Resources
  40. Schiffman H (1980): The Tamil liquids; in Caron BC, Hoffman MAB, Silva M, Van Oosten J, Alford DK, Hunold KA, Macaulay M, Manley-Buser (ed): Proceedings of the 6th Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. Berkeley, Department of South and South East Asian Languages, vol 6, pp 100-110.
  41. Schiffman H (1983): A Reference Grammar of Spoken Kannada. Seattle, University of Washington Press.
  42. Scobbie J, Punnoose R, Khattab G (2013): Articulating five liquids: a single speaker ultrasound study of Malayalam; in Spreafico L, Vietti A (eds): Rhotics: New Data and Perspectives. Bozen, BU Press, pp 99-124.
  43. Searle SR, Casella G, McCulloch CE (1992): Variance Components. New York, Wiley & Sons.
  44. Simonet M (2010): Dark and clear laterals in Catalan and Spanish: interaction of phonetic categories in early bilinguals. J Phon 38:663-678.
    External Resources
  45. Speaks C (1999): Introduction to Sound: Acoustics for the Hearing and Speech Sciences, ed 3. San Diego, Singular.
  46. Sridhar SN (1990): Kannada. London, Routledge.
  47. Švarný O, Zvelebil K (1955): Some remarks on the articulation of the “cerebral” consonants in Indian languages, especially in Tamil. Archiv Orientální 23:374-407.
  48. Tabain M, Breen G, Butcher A, Jukes A, Beare R (2016a): Stress effects on stop bursts in five languages. Lab Phonol 7:161-123.
    External Resources
  49. Tabain M, Butcher A, Breen G, Beare R (2016b): An acoustic study of nasal consonants in three Central Australian languages. J Acoust Soc Am 139:890-903.
  50. Tabain M, Butcher A, Breen G, Beare R (2016c): An acoustic study of multiple lateral consonants in three Central Australian languages. J Acoust Soc Am 139:361-372.
  51. Tabain M, Kochetov A, Beare R, Sreedevi N (2016d): A comparative ultrasound study of coronal contrasts in Arrernte and Kannada: manner contrasts. 16th Australas Int Conf Speech Sci Technol (SST2016), Sydney, pp 25-28.
  52. Upadhyaya UP (1972): Kannada Phonetic Reader. Mysore, Central Institute of Indian Languages.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: July 19, 2016
Accepted: June 04, 2017
Published online: October 27, 2017
Issue release date: Published online first (Issue-in-Progress)

Number of Print Pages: 25
Number of Figures: 5
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 0031-8388 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0321 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/PHO


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.