Aberrant Pyramidal Tract in the Medial Lemniscus of the Human Brainstem:Normal Distribution and PathologicalChangesYamashita M. · Yamamoto T.
Department of Neurology, Saiseikai Nakatsu Hospital and Medical Center based on Social Welfare Organization ‘Saiseikai’ Imperial Gift Foundation Inc., Osaka, Japan
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
We examined the consistency of the so-called aberrant pyramidal tract (APT) in 150 consecutive autopsied human brains using the modified Bielschowsky stain for axons. We were able to identify the APT in all brains except for one with holoprosencephaly. The APT left the pyramidal tract within the crus cerebri and passed in the medial lemniscus of the pons through the upper medulla oblongata. In 13 of the 63 brains with cerebrovascular diseases, wallerian degeneration was found in the APT on the ipsilateral side of the cerebral lesions. Further, the APT showed depletion of small-sized fibers in 2 of the 5 brains with multiple-system atrophy. These findings confirmed that the APT is a normal descending fiber tract and a part of the pyramidal tract.
© 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel
Dejérine J: Anatomie des centres nerveux. Paris, Rueff, 1901.
Marburg O: Mikroskopisch-topographischer Atlas des menschlichen Zentralnervensystems mit begleitenden Texten, ed 3. Leipzig, Deuticke, 1927.
Nathan PW, Smith MC: Long descending tracts in man. I. Review of present knowledge. Brain 1955;78:248–303.
Nyberg-Hansen R, Rinvik E: Some comments on the pyramidal tract, with special reference to its individual variations in man. Acta Neurol Scand 1963;63:1–30.
Crosby EC, Humphrey T, Lauer EW: Correlative Anatomy of the Nervous System. New York, Macmillan, 1962, pp 262–264.
Brodal A: Neurological Anatomy. In Relation to Clinical Medicine, ed 3. New York, Oxford University Press, 1981.
Parent A: Carpenter’s Human Neuroanatomy, ed 9. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1996.
- Yamamoto T, Hirano A: A comparative study of modified Bielschowsky, Bodian and thioflavin S stains on Alzheimer’s neurofibrillary tangles. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 1986;12:3–9.
Lassek AM, Rasmussen GL: A comparative fiber and numerical analysis of the pyramidal tract. J Comp Neurol 1940;72:417–428.
Yamamoto T, Owa K, Senzaki H: Alobar holoprosencephaly: Neuropathological study of a newborn with cyclopia and proboscis. Ann Nakatsu Hosp 1993;4:49–56.
Yamashita M, Yamamoto T, Nakamura K: Concurrence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with limbic degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropathology 1997;17:334–339.
Yamashita M, Yamamoto T, Senzaki H: An autopsy case of corticobasal degeneration with predominant involvement of the prefrontal lobe, limbic system and especially of the medial temporal base (in Japanese with English abstract). Brain Nerve (Tokyo) 1998;50:463–468.
Barnes S: Degenerations in hemiplegia with special reference to a ventrolateral pyramidal tract, the accessory fillet and Pick’s bundle. Brain 1901;24:463–500.
Voogd RNJ, van Huijzen C: The Human Central Nervous System: A Synopsis and Atlas. Berlin, Springer, 1979.
Crosby EC, Yoss RE, Henderson JW: The mammalian midbrain and isthmus regions. II. The fiber connections. D. The pattern for eye movements on the frontal eye field and the discharge of specific portions of this field to and through midbrain levels. J Comp Neurol 1952;97:357–383.
Kuypers HGJM: Corticobulbar connexions to the pons and lower brain-stem in man: An anatomical study. Brain 1958;81:364–388.
Kuypers HGJM: Some projections from the peri-central cortex to the pons and lower brain stem in monkey and chimpanzee. J Comp Neurol 1958;110:221–255.
Takeda S, Motegi T, Ikuta F, Yamada N, Hasegawa A: The corticospinal tract in man: A study in a case of the cerebral lesion localized in the unilateral motor area (in Japanese with English abstract). Neurol Med (Tokyo) 1984;21:158–165.
Yamamoto T: Aberrant pyramidal tract: A clinicopathological review. Neurol Med (Tokyo) 1995;43:306–312.
- Ishida T, Murayama S, Inoue K, Machinami R, Tomonaga M, Mannen T: Degeneration of posterior column nucleus, inferior olivary nucleus and cerebellar cortex: System degeneration or paraneoplastic disease? Clin Neuropathol 1990;9:262–267.
- Yamamoto T, Yamasaki M, Imai T: Retrograde pyramidal tract degeneration in a patient with cervical haematomyelia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989;52:382–386.
Yamamoto T: Aberrant pyramidal tract: A study with Sudan III stain (in Japanese with English abstract). Brain Nerve (Tokyo) 1989;41:777–780.
- Sobue G, Terao S, Kachi T, Ken E, Hashizume Y, Mitsuma T, Takahashi A: Somatic motor efferents in multiple system atrophy with autonomic failure: A clinicopathological study. J Neurol Sci 1992;112:113–125.
- Yasui K, Hashizume Y, Yoshida M, Sobue G: The cerebral peduncle lesion in multiple system atrophy (in Japanese with English abstract). Clin Neurol 1999;39:1125–1131.
- Rothstein TL, Alvord EC Jr: Posterior internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Arch Neurol 1971;24:191–202.
- Puvanendran K, Wong PK, Ransome GA: Syndrome of Dejérine’s fourth reich. Acta Neurol Scand 1978;57:349–353.
- Hopf HC, Tettenborn B, Krämer G: Pontine supranuclear facial palsy. Stroke 1990;21:1754–1757.
Kawai M, Iwata M, Mannen T, Hirose H, Yoshikawa K: Localization of the corticobulbar tract in pons (in Japanese with English abstract). Clin Neurol (Tokyo) 1988;28:897–901.
- Anderson CA, Sandberg E, Filley CM, Harris SL, Tyler KL: One and one-half syndrome with supranuclear facial weakness: Magnetic resonance imaging localization. Arch Neurol 1999;56:1509–1511.
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.