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Original Paper

Case-Control Studies of Genetic Markers: Power and Sample Size Approximations for Armitage’s Test for Trend

Slager S.L. · Schaid D.J.

Author affiliations

Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn., USA

Related Articles for ""

Hum Hered 2001;52:149–153

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Published online: September 21, 2001
Issue release date: September 2001

Number of Print Pages: 5
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 0001-5652 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0062 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/HHE

Abstract

The association of a candidate gene with disease can be efficiently evaluated by a case-control study in which allele frequencies are compared for diseased cases and unaffected controls. However, when the distribution of genotypes in the population deviates from Hardy-Weinberg proportions, the frequency of genotypes – rather than alleles – should be compared by the Armitage test for trend. We present formulas for power and sample size for studies that use Armitage’s trend test. The formulas make no assumptions about Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, but do assume random ascertainment of cases and controls, all of whom are independent of one another. We demonstrate the accuracy of the formulas by simulations.

© 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel


References

  1. Morton NE, Collins A: Tests and estimates of allelic association in complex inheritance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998;95:11389–11393.
  2. Sasieni PD: From genotypes to genes: Doubling the sample size. Biometrics 1997;53:1253–1261.
  3. Armitage P: Tests for linear trends in proportions and frequencies. Biometrics 1955;11:375–386.
  4. Devlin B, Roeder K: Genomic control for association studies. Biometrics 1999;55:997–1004.
  5. Nam J: A simple approximation for calculating sample sizes for detecting linear trend in proportions. Biometrics 1987;43:701–705.
    External Resources
  6. Risch NJ: Searching for genetic determinants in the new millennium. Nature 2000;405:847–856.
  7. Wacholder S, Rothman N, Caporaso N: Population stratification in epidemiologic studies of common genetic variants and cancer: Quantification of bias. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92:1151–1158.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Published online: September 21, 2001
Issue release date: September 2001

Number of Print Pages: 5
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 0001-5652 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0062 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/HHE


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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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