Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Original Paper

Tactile Hairs on the Postcranial Body in Florida Manatees: A Mammalian Lateral Line?

Reep R.L.a · Marshall C.D.b · Stoll M.L.a

Author affiliations

aDepartment of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, and McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla., and bDepartment of Marine Biology, Texas A and M University at Galveston, Tex., USA

Related Articles for ""

Brain Behav Evol 2002;59:141–154

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information










I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Login Information





Contact Information










I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

CHF 9.00 *
EUR 8.00 *
USD 9.00 *

Select

KAB

Buy a Karger Article Bundle (KAB) and profit from a discount!

If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in.


Save over 20% compared to the individual article price.
Learn more

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restrictions apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00


Select

Subscribe

  • Access to all articles of the subscribed year(s) guaranteed for 5 years
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select

* The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Published online: July 11, 2002
Issue release date: 2002

Number of Print Pages: 14
Number of Figures: 9
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 0006-8977 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9743 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/BBE

Abstract

Previous reports have suggested that the sparsely distributed hairs found on the entire postcranial body of sirenians are all sinus type tactile hairs. This would represent a unique arrangement because no other mammal has been reported to possess tactile hairs except on restricted regions of the body, primarily the face. In order to investigate this issue further, hair counts were made systematically in three Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), and hair follicle microanatomy was studied in 110 specimens gathered from 9 animals. We found that the postcranial body possesses approximately 1500 hairs per side, and hair density decreases from dorsal to ventral. External hair length ranged from 2–9 mm, and most hairs were separated from their nearest neighbor by 20–40 mm, resulting in an independent domain of movement for each hair. All hairs exhibited the anatomical characteristics of follicle-sinus complexes typical of tactile hairs, including a dense connective tissue capsule containing an elongated circumferential blood sinus and innervation by 20–50 axons which ascend the mesenchymal sheath. We conclude that this represents a unique distributed underwater tactile system capable of conveying detailed and significant external information concerning approaching animals, water currents and possibly the presence of large stationary features of the environment. Such a system would be analogous to the lateral line in fish, and would be particularly useful in the turbid habitat frequented by Florida manatees.

© 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel


References

  1. Bachteler, D., and G. Dehnhardt (1999) Active touch performance in the Antillean manatee: evidence for a functional differentiation of facial tactile hairs. Zoology, 102: 61–69.
  2. Brecht, M., B. Preilowski, and M.M. Merzenich (1997) Functional architecture of the mystacial vibrissae. Behav. Brain Res., 84: 81–97.
  3. Bryden, M.M., H. Marsh, and B.W. MacDonald (1978) The skin and hair of the dugong, Dugong dugon. J. Anat., 126: 637–638.
  4. Catania, K.C. (2000) Epidermal sensory organs of moles, shrew-moles, and desmans: A study of the Family Talpidae with comments on the function and evolution of Eimer’s organ. Brain Behav. Evol., 56: 146–174.
  5. Colbert, D., G.B. Bauer, W. Fellner, J. Gaspard, and B. Littlefield (2001) Underwater visual acuity of a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Presented at the 14th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, December 2001, Maui.
  6. Crish, S.D., T.J. Park, and C.M. Comer (2000) Orienting behavior mediated by an array of body vibrissae in naked mole-rats. Soc. Neurosci. Abst., 26: 431.
  7. Dehnhardt, G. (1994) Tactile size discrimination by a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) using its mystacial vibrissae. J. Comp. Physiol. A, 175: 791–800.
  8. Dehnhardt, G., and G. Ducker (1996) Tactual discrimination of size and shape by a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Animal Learning Behav., 24: 366–374.
  9. Dehnhardt, G., and A. Kaminski (1995) Sensitivity of the mystacial vibrissae of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) for size differences of actively touched objects. J. Exp. Biol., 198: 2317–2323.
  10. Dehnhardt, G., B. Mauck, and H. Bleckmann (1998) Seal whiskers detect water movements. Nature, 394: 235–236.
  11. Dehnhardt, G., B. Mauck, W. Hanke, and H. Bleckmann (2001) Hydrodynamic trail-following in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). Science, 293: 102–104.
  12. Dijkgraaf, A.S. (1963) The functioning and significance of the lateral-line organs. Biol. Rev., 38: 51–105.
  13. Dosch, F. (1915) (translated by D.A. Sinclair) Structure and development of the integument of Sirenia. Tech. Trans. No. 1626. National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, 1973. (Bau und Entwicklung des Integuments der Sirenen. Jenaische Zeitschr., 53: 805–854.)
  14. Dykes, R.W. (1975) Afferent fibers from mystacial vibrissae of cats and seals. J. Neurophysiol., 38: 650–662.
  15. Eisenberg, J.F. (1981) The Mammalian Radiations. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  16. Gerstein, E.R., L. Gerstein, S.E. Forsythe, and J.E. Blue (1999) The underwater audiogram of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus). J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 105: 3575–3583.
  17. Hartman, D.S. (1979) Ecology and behavior of the manatee (Trichechus manatus). Am. Soc. Mammal. Spec. Pub., 5: 1–153.
  18. Hassan, E.S. (1989) Hydrodynamic imaging of the surroundings by the lateral line of the blind cave fish Anoptichthys jordani. In The Mechanosensory Lateral Line, Neurobiology and Evolution (ed. by S. Coombs, P. Görner and H. Münz), Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 217–227.
  19. Hyvarinen, H. (1995) Structure and function of the vibrissae of the ringed seal (Phoca hispida L.). In Sensory Systems of Aquatic Mammals (ed. by R.A. Kastelein, J.A. Thomas and P.E. Nachtigall), De Spil Publishers, Woerden, The Netherlands, pp. 429–445.
  20. Kalmijn, A.J. (1989) Functional evolution of lateral line and inner ear sensory systems. In The Mechanosensory Lateral Line, Neurobiology and Evolution (ed. by S. Coombs, P. Görner and H. Münz), Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 188–215.
  21. Kamiya, T., and F. Yamasaki (1981) A morphological note on the sinus hair of the dugong. In The Dugong (ed. by H. Marsh), Dept. of Zoology, James Cook University of North Queensland, Australia, pp. 111–113.
  22. Kastelein, R.A., and M.A. Van Gaalen (1988) The tactile sensitivity of the mystacial vibrissae of a Pacific Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). Part 1. Aquat. Mamm., 14: 123–133.
  23. Layne, J.N., and D.K. Caldwell (1964) Behavior of the Amazon dolphin, Inia geoffrensis (Blainville), in captivity. Zoologica, 49: 81–108.
  24. Ling, J.K. (1977) Vibrissae of marine mammals. In Functional Anatomy of Marine Mammals, Vol. 3 (ed. by J.B. Harrison), Academic Press, London, pp. 387–415.
  25. Marshall, C.D., and R.L. Reep (1995) Manatee cerebral cortex: cytoarchitecture of the caudal region in Trichechus manatus latirostris. Brain Behav. Evol., 45: 1–18.
  26. Marshall, C.D., G.D. Huth, V.M. Edmonds, D.L. Halin, and R.L. Reep (1998) Prehensile use of perioral bristles during feeding and associated behaviors of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Marine Mamm. Sci., 14: 274–289.
  27. Marshall C.D., P.S. Kubilis, G.D. Huth, V.M. Edmonds, D.L. Halin, and R.L. Reep (2000) Prehensile use of perioral bristles by Florida manatees during feeding upon several species of aquatic vegetation. J. Mammalogy, 81: 649–658.
  28. Mauck, B., U. Eysel, and G. Dehnhardt (2000) Selective heating of vibrissal follicles in seals (Phoca vitulina) and dolphins (Sotalia fluviatilis guianensis). J. Exp. Biol., 203: 2125–2131.
  29. Miller, E.H. (1975) A comparative study of facial expressions of two species of pinnipeds. Behaviour, 53: 268–284.
  30. Milton, K. (1984) Squirrels. In Encyclopedia of Mammals (ed. by D. McDonald), Facts on File, New York, pp. 612–623.
  31. Montgomery, J.C., C.F. Baker, and A.G. Carton (1997) The lateral line can mediate rheotaxis in fish. Nature, 389: 960–963.
  32. Norman, J.R., and F.C. Fraser (1948) Giant Fishes, Whales and Dolphins. Putnam, London.
  33. Park, T.J., A. Caroll, C.M. Comer, H.-S. Hong, and F.L. Rice (2000) Innervation of naked mole-rat body hairs and facial vibrissae. Soc. Neurosci. Abst., 26: 431.
  34. Peterson, R.S., and G.A. Bartholomew (1967) The natural history and behavior of the California sea lion. The Am. Soc. Mammal. Spec. Pub., 1: 1–79.
  35. Pettigrew, J.D., P.R. Manger, and S.L.B. Fine (1998) The sensory world of the platypus. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B, 353: 1199–1210.
  36. Reep, R.L., C.D. Marshall, M.L. Stoll, and D.M. Whitaker (1998) Distribution and innervation of facial bristles and hairs in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Marine Mamm. Sci., 14: 257–273.
  37. Reep, R.L., C.D. Marshall, M.L. Stoll, B.L. Homer, and D.A. Samuelson (2001) Microanatomy of perioral bristles in the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris. Brain Behav. Evol., 58: 1–14.
  38. Reynolds III, J.E. (1979) The semisocial manatee. Nat. Hist., 88: 44–53.
  39. Rice, F.L., A. Mance, and B.L. Munger (1986) A comparative light microscopic analysis of the innervation of the mystacial pad. I. Vibrissal follicles. J. Comp. Neurol., 252: 154–174.
  40. Sale, J.B. (1970) Unusual external adaptations in the rock hyrax. Zool. Afr., 5: 101–113.
  41. Scheffer, V.B. (1964) Hair patterns in seals (Pinnipedia). J. Morph., 115: 291–304.
  42. Sokolov, V.E. (1982) Mammal Skin. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
  43. Sokolov, V.E. (1986) Manatee – Morphological Description. Nauka Press, Moscow. (In Russian).
  44. Szabo, G. (1958) The regional frequency and distribution of hair follicles in human skin. In The Biology of Hair Growth (ed. by W. Montagna and R.A. Ellis), Academic Press, New York, pp. 33–38.
  45. Urick, R.J. (1983) Principles of Underwater Sound, 3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.
  46. Woolsey, T.A., D. Durham, R.M. Harris, D.J. Simons, and K.L. Valentino (1981) Somatosensory development. Dev. Percept., 1: 259–292.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Published online: July 11, 2002
Issue release date: 2002

Number of Print Pages: 14
Number of Figures: 9
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 0006-8977 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9743 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/BBE


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.