Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Experimental Section

Step Length Variability at Gait Initiation in Elderly Fallers and Non-Fallers, and Young Adults

Azizah Mbourou G.a · Lajoie Y.b · Teasdale N.a

Author affiliations

aDivision de Kinésiologie, Département de Médecine Sociale et Préventive, Faculté de Médecine, Université Laval, Québec, and bSchool of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont., Canada

Related Articles for ""

Gerontology 2003;49:21–26

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information










I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Login Information





Contact Information










I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

CHF 38.00 *
EUR 35.00 *
USD 39.00 *

Select

KAB

Buy a Karger Article Bundle (KAB) and profit from a discount!

If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in.


Save over 20% compared to the individual article price.
Learn more

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restrictions apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00


Select

Subscribe

  • Access to all articles of the subscribed year(s) guaranteed for 5 years
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select

* The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Experimental Section

Received: September 12, 2001
Accepted: February 27, 2002
Published online: December 16, 2002
Issue release date: January – February

Number of Print Pages: 6
Number of Figures: 2
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 0304-324X (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0003 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/GER

Abstract

Background: Normal aging is characterized by functional changes in the sensory, neurological and musculoskeletal systems. These changes affect several motor tasks including postural balance and gait. Gait variability has been suggested to be an important predictor of the risk of falling: the age-related increased variability may result of errors in the control of foot placement and/or center of mass displacement. Falls occur most frequently in elderly populations who scored poorly during transfer of quasi-static to dynamic situations, turning and reaching tasks in clinical tests. This suggests that gait initiation, which is a transient phase between standing and walking, could contribute to an increase in variability because, for elderly, muscular synergies associated with gait initiation occur less frequently than for young adults. Objective: To examine if gait initiation and more particularly the variability of the first step length and the duration of the first double support period are more important for elderly fallers than for eldery non-fallers and young adults. Methods: Elderly fallers, elderly non-fallers, and young adults were asked to initiate gait and walk at least 3 strides. Spatio-temporal characteristics of the first step and following strides were collected and across-trials variability analysed. Results: Elderly fallers showed a much smaller first step length and a longer duration of the double support period. The first step length variability of elderly fallers was more than twice greater than that observed for elderly non-fallers. Conclusion: Considering the importance of proper initial foot placement for gait initiation and for stepping recovery responses, the first step length variability observed for the elderly fallers may be an important predictor of postural problems.

© 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel


References

  1. Wu G: A review of body segmental displacement, velocity, and acceleration in human gait; in Craik RL, Oatis CA (eds): Gait Analysis, Therory and Application. St. Louis, Mosby, 1995, pp 205–222.
  2. Maki BE: Gait changes in older adults: Predictors of falls or indicators of fear. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45:313–320.
  3. Craik RL, Dutterer L: Spatial and temporal characteristics of foot fall patterns; in Craik RL, Oatis CA (eds): Gait Analysis, Theory and Application. St Louis, Mosby, 1995, pp 143–158.
  4. Grabiner PC, Biswas ST, Grabiner MD: Age-related changes in spatial and temporal gait variables. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:31–35.
  5. Feltner ME, MacRae PG, McNitt-Gray JL: Quantitative gait assessment as a predictor of prospective and retrospective falls in community-dwelling older women. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1994;75:447–453.
  6. Gabell A, Nayak US: The effect of age on variability in gait. J Gerontol 1984;39:662–666.
  7. Lilley JM, Arie T, Chilvers CE: Accidents involving older people: A review of the literature. Age Ageing 1995;24:346–365.
  8. Darling WG, Cooke JD, Brown SH: Control of simple arm movements in elderly humans. Neurobiol Aging 1989;10:149–157.
  9. Berg WP, Alessio HM, Mills EM, Tong C: Circumstances and consequences of falls in independent community-dwelling older adults. Age Ageing 1997;26:261–268.
  10. Tang PF, Woollacott MH: Inefficient postural responses to unexpected slips during walking in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1998;53:M471–M480.
  11. Topper AK, Maki BE, Holliday PJ: Are activity-based assessments of balance and gait in the elderly predictive of risk of falling and/or type of fall? J Am Geriatr Soc 1993;41:479–487.
  12. Maki BE, McIlroy WE, Perry SD: Influence of lateral destabilization on compensatory stepping responses. J Biomech 1996;29:343–353.
  13. McIlroy WE, Maki BE: Age-related changes in compensatory stepping in response to unpredictable perturbations. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1996;51:M289–M296.
  14. Maki BE, Edmondstone MA, McIlroy WE: Age-related differences in laterally directed compensatory stepping behavior. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2000;55:M270–M277.
  15. Maki BE, McIlroy WE: The control of foot placement during compensatory stepping reactions: does speed of response take precedence over stability? IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng 1999;7:80–90.
  16. Polcyn AF, Lipsitz LA, Kerrigan DC, Collins JJ: Age-related changes in the initiation of gait: Degradation of central mechanisms for momentum generation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998;79:1582–1589.
  17. Shumway-Cook A, Baldwin M, Polissar NL, Gruber W: Predicting the probability for falls in community-dwelling older adults. Phys Ther 1997;77:812–819.
  18. Thorbahn LD, Newton RA: Use of the Berg Balance Test to predict falls in elderly persons. Phys Ther 1996;76:576–583.
  19. U’Ren RC, Riddle MC, Lezak MD, Bennington-Davis M: The mental efficiency of the elderly person with type II diabetes mellitus. J Am Geriatr Soc 1990;38:505–510.
  20. Lajoie Y, Teasdale N, Bard C, Fleury M: Attentional demands for static and dynamic equilibrium. Exp Brain Res 1993;97:139–144.
  21. Bessou P, Dupui P, Montoya R and Pagès B: Simultaneous recording of longitudinal displacements of both feet during human walking. J Physiol (Paris) 1888–89; 83:102–110.
  22. Lajoie Y, Barbeau H, Hamelin M: Attentional requirements of walking in spinal cord injured patients compared to normal subjects. Spinal Cord 1999;37:245–250.
  23. Courtemanche R, Teasdale N, Boucher P, Fleury M, Bard C: Gait problems in diabetic neuropathic patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996;77:849–855.
  24. Lajoie Y, Teasdale N, Boucher P, Fleury M, Forget R, Paillard J, Lamarre Y: Gait of a deafferented subject without large myelinated sensory fibers below the neck. Neurology 1996;47:109–115.
  25. Ferrandez AM, Pailhous J, Durup M: Slowness in elderly gait. Exp Aging Res 1990;16:79–89.
  26. Nakamura T, Meguro K, Sasaki H: Relationship between falls and stride length variability in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. Gerontology 1996;42:108–113.
  27. Sekiya N, Nagasaki H, Ito H, Furuna T: Optimal walking in terms of variability in step length. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1997;26:266–272.
  28. Thelen DG, Wojcik LA, Schultz BA, Ashton-Miller JA, Alexander NB: Age differences in using a rapid step to regain balance during a forward fall. J Gerontol 1996;52A:M8–M13.
  29. Hausdorff JM, Rios DA, Edelberg HK: Gait variability and fall risk in community-living older adults: A 1-year prospective study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1050–1056.
  30. Breniere Y, Do MC: Control of gait initiation. J Mot Behav 1991;23:235–240.
  31. Crenna P, Frigo C: A motor programme for the initiation of forward-oriented movement in humans. J Physiol 1991;437:635–653.
  32. Thelen DG, Muriuki M, James J, Schultz BA, Ashton-Miller JA, Alexander NB: Muscle activities used by young and old adults when stepping to regain balance during a forward fall. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2000;10:93–101.
  33. Corbeil P, Simoneau M, Rancourt D, Tremblay A, Teasdale N: Increased risk for falling associated with obesity: Mathematical modeling of postural control. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2001;9:126–136.
  34. Wojcik LA, Thelen DG, Schultz AB, Ashton-Miller JA, Alexander NB: Age and gender differences in peak lower extremity joint torques and ranges of motion used during single-step balance recovery from a forward fall. J Biomech 2001;34:67–73.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Experimental Section

Received: September 12, 2001
Accepted: February 27, 2002
Published online: December 16, 2002
Issue release date: January – February

Number of Print Pages: 6
Number of Figures: 2
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 0304-324X (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0003 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/GER


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.