Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Original Paper

Command Hallucinations: Who Obeys and Who Resists When?

Erkwoh R.a · Willmes K.b · Eming-Erdmann A.a · Kunert H.J.a

Author affiliations

aClinic of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy and bClinic of Neurology, Section Neuropsychology, University of Aachen, Aachen, Germany

Related Articles for ""

Psychopathology 2002;35:272–279

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Login Information





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

CHF 38.00 *
EUR 35.00 *
USD 39.00 *

Select

KAB

Buy a Karger Article Bundle (KAB) and profit from a discount!

If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in.


Save over 20% compared to the individual article price.
Learn more

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restrictions apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00


Select

Subscribe

  • Access to all articles of the subscribed year(s) guaranteed for 5 years
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select

* The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: June 20, 2002
Published online: December 06, 2002
Issue release date: September – October

Number of Print Pages: 8
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 7

ISSN: 0254-4962 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-033X (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/PSP

Abstract

The impact of auditory command hallucinations on the behaviour of schizophrenic patients sometimes appears to be unpredictable. In order to tackle this problem, the psychopathological characteristics of command hallucinations in 31 schizophrenic patients were assessed using a 24-item questionnaire. Using binary data and relative risk analysis methods, predictors were determined for obeying or resisting command hallucinations. Characteristics of voices and the attitude toward the voices appear equally important for prediction. A set of three psychopathological characteristics comprising a voice known to the patient, emotional involvement during the hallucinations, and seeing the voice as real provides significant predictivity of behaviour following command hallucinations. These results are interesting for clinical and forensic psychiatrists.

© 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel


References

  1. Junginger J, Frame CL: Self-report of the frequency and phenomenology of verbal hallucinations. J Nerv Ment Dis 1985;173:149–155.
  2. Junginger J: Command hallucinations and the prediction of dangerousness. Psychiatr Serv 1995;46:911–914.
  3. Zisook S, Byrd D, Kuck J, Jeste DV: Command hallucinations in outpatients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry 1995;56:462–465.
  4. Sedman G: ‘Inner voices’. Phenomenological and clinical aspects. Br J Psychiatry 1966;112:485–490.
  5. Lowe GR: The phenomenology of hallucinations as an aid to differential diagnosis. Br J Psychiatry 1973;123:621–633.
  6. Nayani TH, David AS: The auditory hallucination: A phenomenological survey. Psychol Med 1996;26:177–189.
  7. American Psychiatric Association (ed): Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R), ed 3, revised. Washington, American Psychiatric Press, 1987.
  8. Kay SR, Fiszbein A, Opler LA: The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 1987;13:261–276.
  9. Krauth J: Einführung in die Konfigurationsfrequenzanalyse (KFA). Ein multivariates nichtparametrisches Verfahren zum Nachweis und zur Interpretation von Typen und Syndromen. Weinheim, Psychologie Verlag Union, 1993.
  10. Mehta C, Patel N: StatXact4 for Windows: Statistical Software for Exact Nonparametric Inference, User Manual. Cambridge, CYTEL Software Corporation, 1999, pp 435–441.
  11. David AS: The neuropsychological origin of auditory hallucinations; in David AS, Cutting JC (eds): The Neuropsychology of Schizophrenia. Hove, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1994, pp 269–313.
  12. Frith CD: The positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia reflect impairments in the perception and initiation of action. Psychol Med 1987;17:631–648.
  13. Bentall R, Baker G, Havers S: Reality monitoring and psychotic hallucinations. Br J Clin Psychol 1991;30:213–222.
    External Resources
  14. McGuire PK, Silbersweig DA, Murray RM, David AS, Frackowiak RSJ, Frith CD: Functional anatomy of inner speech and auditory verbal imagery. Psychol Med 1996;126:29–38.
  15. McGuire PK, Silbersweig DA, Wright I, Murray RM, Frackowiak RSJ, Frith CD: The neural correlates of inner speech and auditory verbal imagery in schizophrenia: Relationship to auditory verbal hallucinations. Br J Psychiatry 1996;169:148–159.
  16. Johns LC, McGuire PK: Verbal self-monitoring and auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Lancet 1999;353:469–470.
  17. Shergill SS, Brammer MJ, Williams SCR, Murray RM, McGuire PK: Mapping auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000;57:1033–1038.
  18. Cleghorn JM, Franco S, Szechtman B, Kaplan RD, Szechtman H, Brown GM, Nahmias C, Garnett S: Toward a brain map of auditory hallucinations. Am J Psychiatry 1992;149:1062–1069.
  19. McGuire PK, Shah GMS, Murray RM: Inreased blood flow in Broca’s area during auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Lancet 1993;342:703–706.
  20. David AS, Woodruff PWR, Howard R, Howard R, Mellers JDC, Brammer M, Bullmore E, Wright I, Andrew C, Williams SCR: Auditory hallucinations inhibit exogenous activation of auditory association cortex. Neuroreport 1996;7:932–936.
  21. Dierks T, Linden DEJ, Jandl M, Formisano E, Goebel R, Lanfermann H, Singer W: Activation of Heschl’s gyrus during auditory hallucinations. Neuron 1999;22:615–621.
  22. Lennox BR, Park SB, Medley I, Morris PG, Jones PB: The functional anatomy of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 2000;100:13–20.
  23. Shergill SS, Bullmore E, Simmons A, Murray R, McGuire P: Functional anatomy of auditory verbal imagery in schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157:1691–1693.
  24. Junginger J: Predicting compliance with command hallucinations. Am J Psychiatry 1990;147:245–247.
  25. Frank SM, Rendon MI, Siomopoulous G: Language in hallucinations of adult schizophrenics; in Rieber RW (ed): Applied Psycholinguistics and Mental Health. New York, Plenum, 1980;pp 115–126.
  26. Oulis PG, Mavreas VG, Mamounas JM, Stefanis CM: Clinical characteristics of auditory hallucinations. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1995;92:97–102.
  27. David AS: Insight and psychosis. Br J Psychiatry 1990;156:798–808.
  28. David A, Buchanan A, Reed A, Almeida O: The assessment of insight in psychosis. Br J Psychiatry 1992;161:599–602.
  29. Aggernæs A: The experience reality of hallucinations and other psychological phenomena: An empirical analysis. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1972;48:220–238.
  30. Jaspers K: Allgemeine Psychopathologie, ed 5. Berlin, Springer, 1948, pp 59–60.
  31. Feder R: Auditory hallucinations treated by radio headphones. Am J Psychiatry 1982;139:1188–1190.
  32. Margo A, Hemsley DR, Sladem PD: The effects of varying auditory input on schizophrenic hallucinations. Br J Psychiatry 1981;139:122–127.
  33. Gallagher AG, Dinan TG, Baker LJV: The effects of varying auditory input on schizophrenic hallucinations: A replication. Br J Med Psychol 1994;67:67–75.
    External Resources
  34. Falloon IR, Talbot RE: Persistent auditory hallucinations: Coping mechanisms and implications for management. Psychol Med 1981;11:329–339.
  35. Herpertz SC, Sass H: Das Konzept der Störungen der Impulskontrolle in den modernen Klassifikationssystemen; in Gross G, Huber G, Sass H (eds): Moderne psychiatrische Klassifikationssysteme. Implikationen für Diagnose und Therapie, Forschung und Praxis. Stuttgart, Schattauer, 1998.
  36. Benjamin L: Is chronicity a function of the relationship between the person and the auditory hallucination? Schizophr Bull 1989;15:291–309.
  37. McNiel D: Hallucinations and violence; in Monahan J, Steadman H (eds): Violence and Mental Disorder: Developments in risk assessment. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1994.
  38. Rogers R, Gillis J, Turner R, Frise-Smith T: The clinical presentation of command hallucinations in a forensic population. Am J Psychiatry 1990;147:1304–1307.
  39. Hellerstein D, Frosch W, Koenigsberg HW: The clinical significance of command hallucinations. Am J Psychiatry 1987;144:212–219.
  40. Schneider K: Klinische Psychopathologie, ed 12. Stuttgart, Thieme, 1970.
  41. American Psychiatric Association (ed): Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), ed 4. Washington, American Psychiatric Press, 1994.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: June 20, 2002
Published online: December 06, 2002
Issue release date: September – October

Number of Print Pages: 8
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 7

ISSN: 0254-4962 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-033X (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/PSP


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.