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Review

The Role of IL-10 and TGF-β in the Differentiation and Effector Function of T Regulatory Cells

Levings M.K.a · Bacchetta R.a · Schulz U.a · Roncarolo M.G.a,b

Author affiliations

aSan Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy, and bUniversità Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy

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Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;129:263–276

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Review

Published online: December 23, 2002
Issue release date: December 2002

Number of Print Pages: 14
Number of Figures: 3
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 1018-2438 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0097 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/IAA

Abstract

Suppression by T regulatory (Tr) cells is essential for the induction of peripheral tolerance. Many types of CD4+ Tr cells have been described in a number of systems, and although the precise mechanisms which mediate their effects remain to be defined, it is well established that they can suppress immune responses via cell-cell interactions and/or the production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Type 1 T regulatory (Tr1) cells are defined by their ability to produce high levels of IL-10 and TGF-β, and these cytokines mediate their ability to suppress pathological immune responses in the settings of transplantation, allergy and autoimmune disease. Tr1 cell activity is not necessarily beneficial, and they can also suppress immune responses to antigens from tumours and pathogens. In vivo, the differentiation of Tr1 cells is likely controlled by certain dendritic cells which promote IL-10 production and may express tolerogenic costimulatory molecules. Another subset of CD4+ Tr cells is defined by constitutive expression of CD25, and although these CD4+CD25+ Tr cells appear to suppress via mechanisms which are largely independent of cytokines, they may actively promote the differentiation of Tr1 cells. Many questions about the basic biology of Tr1 cells remain to be answered, but the development of therapeutic strategies designed to harness their immunoregulatory effects can already be contemplated.

© 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel


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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Review

Published online: December 23, 2002
Issue release date: December 2002

Number of Print Pages: 14
Number of Figures: 3
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 1018-2438 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0097 (Online)

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Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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